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Edited by F, Ll. GRIFFITH 











The offices OF THE EGYPT EXPLOKATION FUND, 37, Great Russell Street, WX, 

AND FiKUcE BmLumG, CoFLtT SqUAHE, Boston, lik&s., ILS.A, 

iKD lY KEGAN PAUL. TKEKCH, TR€bNER & CO., Dbydek Housjs, 43, G^&uarb Street, Soho, W. 

B, QUARITCH. 15. Piccadilly, W, ; ASHER &, CO., 13, Bedford Strekt, Covrmt Garden. W,C. 

/LND HENRY FROWDE, Amen Corner, E*C. 




Edited by F. LL GRIFFITH 









• * • - 
• . 1 • • 



The offices OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 37, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

AND Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

AND BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNBR k CO., Dry den Hoivse, 4n, Gerrard Street, Soiio, W. 

B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ; ASHBR A Co., 13, Bedford Street, Oovent Garden, W.C. 

AND HENRT FROWDE, Amen Cornsr, E.G. 



1 :u^i 'j;{ 




>. •• • •.•« •••• 

• '• • • ••! I •••• • 

.. . . 

••• •.: 


F. G. HILTON PRICE, Esq., Dir.S.A. 

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Cromer, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I. (Egypt) 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., 

The Rev. Prop. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. 
Prof. \V. W. Goodwin (U.S.A.) 

The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.) 
Prof. T. Day Seymour (U.S.A.) 
Prof. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany) 
Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (France) 
JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia) 

H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. Edward R. Warren, Esq. (U.S.A.) 

f)on. Secretan? 
J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. 

Aembera ot Committee 

T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. 

C. F. MoBERLY Bell, Esq. 

The Hon. J. R. Carter (U.S.A.) 

Somers Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. 

Newton Crane, Esq. (U.S.A.) 

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. 

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (U.S.A.) 

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., D. Litt., 

Prop. Ernest A. Gardner, M.A. 
F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., D.Litt. 

Prof. Alexander Macalister, M.D. 

Mrs. McClure. 

The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A. 

Robert Mond, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

The Marquess of Northampton. 

Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Sir Herbert Thompson, Bart. 

Mrs. Tirard. 

Emanuel M. Undbrdown, Esq., K.C. 

John Ward, Esq., F.S.A. 

T. Herbert Warren, Esq., M.A. 

E. TowRY Whyte, Esq., M.A., F.S.A, 



List of Plates vii 

Chapter I. The Tomb of Penthu. 

A. Architectural Features. 

The exterior I 

The wall-thicknesses . 1 

The interior . 1 

The condition of the tomb 2 

B. The Sculptured Scenes. 

North WaU— Upper Part 2 

„ „ Lower Part 3 

South Wall— Lower Part 5 

>j >j Upper Part 6 

Titles of Penthu 6 

Chapter IL The Site of the Southern Tombs. 

Situation 7 

Number 7 

Previous records 7 

Change of Necropolis 8 

Architecture 8 

Tomb-forms 9 

Sequence 9 

Methods of construction 9 

Later burials 10 

Roads 11 

Chapter IIL The Tomb of Mahu. 

A. Site and condition 12 

B. Architectural Features 12 

C. Scenes and inscriptions. 

The wall-thicknesses 13 

The rewards of Mahu 14 

An inspection of the defences 15 

Policing the capital 16 



Chapter IV. The Tomb of Apy 19 

Chapter V. The Tomb of Rames 21 

Chapteu VI. The Tomb of Nefeb-kubpeuu-her-sekhepek ..... 23 

Chaptkr VII. The ToMii of Suti 2^ 

Chapter VIII. Thk Religious Texts. 

A. Their character 26 

B. Longer prayers 27 

C. Shorter prayers 30 

D. Burial petitions 30 

x\ppendix. Decorative Technique at El Amarna 32 

Index 34 

































Tomb of Penthu. 

Plan and Sections 

Facade . 

N. thickness . 

S. thickness 

N. wall : Upper Scene. 

N. and S 


A visit to the Temple 
The Temple Court 
The Lesser Sanctuary 
Lower scenes 
„ Fragments . 

S. wall. The King and Queen at meat . 
Tombs of Penthu and Rames. Photographs 
Tombs of Penthu and Mahu. Photographs 
Southern tombs. General Plan 

Tomb of Mahu. 

Plans and Sections 

N. thickness. The Royal Family 
N. end wall. The Stela .... 
Back wall : N. side. Mahu and his train 
„ „ Mahu visits the Temple 
„ „ (continuation) 
Back wall : S. side. The Royal Chariot 
S. end wall : Left side 
Back wall : S. side. Passing the sentries 
S. end wall. The false door 
Front wall. Mahu exercising office 
S. end wall. Right side . 
Front wall. Mahu brings prisonei's 
Back wall. Doorway 
Exterior. Door-jambs . 





I, 2, 6, 









3, 4, 5 


5, 6 







































XXX. Tombs 10 (Apy), 9a, 9c. 

Smaller Tombs. 

11, 19 




XXXI. TombofApy. Entrance 

XXXII. Hymn to the Aten. Collation of texts 

XXXIII. {The same continued.) 

XXXIV. Tombs 7a, 7b, 9b, 11 (Rames). Plans 
XXXV. Tomb of Rames. Entrance 

XXX VI. Tomb 13, Plan and section 
XXXVII. „ Sections and inscription . 

XXXVIII. Tomb of Suti. Plan and sections 
XXXIX. Tombs of Suti and Apy. Inscriptions 

Photographic Plates. 
XL. Tomb of Mahu. Entrance 

The sentries 

XLL Mahu and the city officials 

The Royal Family driving out . 
XLII. Mahu's Chariot. (IvJc design) . 

Mahu. Nefertiti .... 
XLIII. Tomb 13. Exterior. Interior 
Tomb of Apy. Hymn to Aten 
X LIV. „ „ Votive pieces . 

„ „ The Royal Family . 

X LV. Rames at prayer .... 

Rames and his wife .... 


. 19, 20 

20, 26—29, 31 

. 28, 29 


22, 30 

. 23, 24 

23, 24, 31 


19, 25, 31 

13, 14, 28 



15, 16 


13, 15,22 







ExTEitroK. (Plates i., ii.)— This tomb is hewn 
in the cliff, (*0 yards or thereabouts to the 
South of Xo. 4 (Meryra). The rock here forms 
an overhanging face about 30 ft. high, and by 
cutting back the foot-slope on the left hand 
a vertical wall 70 ft. long and 15 ft. high was 
gained for a fac;ade with but little labour. 
Perhaps because by chance the rock above 
took the exact shape of the usual roll and 
cornice, though in gigantic dimensions^ the 
portal was furnished with no other. The ex- 
cavation left a protected court on the North 
side of the door^ and dwellers in the desert 
at a later period formed this into a snug abode 
by adding thick walls of piled stone. 

The framing of the doorway stands out in 
slight relief from the wall, and i^ decorated in 
the usual way (Plate ii,). The lintel has the 
usual device of royal and divine cartouches, 
flanked on each side by the figure of the 
deceased and his prayer. It is the exact 
counterpart of that of Alimes (III, xxvii.)*^ 

^ No. 5. (No. 2 of Lepaius and L'Hote.) 
' A coniplete drawing of the doorway was lost in 
transit, in England, and had to be replaced by a less 
careful record. The figures on the lintel are only 
approximately cor reel. 

The jambs (much broken and time-worn) con- 
tain t/y hetep sefen prayei's in four columns each. 
(Translations on p. 30.) 

The WALL-TtucKNEssEs.^ — Here the usual 
figures and prayers of the deceased are again 
found, facini^^ outward. They have suffered 
gi'eat injury, but the texts can be restored 
from pandlels in the tomb of Huya* The hiero- 
glyphs were carefully formed^ but retain shape 
find cohiur only on the upper part of the walls. 
Several Greek graffiti arc scratched over the 
figure on Phite iii., one of which reads 
Ep/xam^,^ Penthu wears the long gown, waist- 
sash and sandals, and has the shaven head of 
the priest. Translations of the prayers will be 
found on p. 29. 

IxTEKTOii,— The tomb is in nearly every 
respect similar to that of Ahmes (IIL xxvi.), 
being T-shuped, with the cross- corridor at the 
farther end fi'oin the door. The inner room 
served as the burial-chamber, the actual place 
of interment being provided by a shaft, which 
is protected by a parapet of rock and goes down 
nearly 4*> ft. 1 descended this and found a 
regularly-formed chamber, 17 ft. long, opening 
out of it on the South side. It was partially 

» Cf. Part III., pp. 35, 36, 


filled with loose stones^ and had evidently been 
thoroughly ransacked. 

Beyond the cross-corridor was the Shrine. 
It had contained a statue or the block out 
of which one was to be hewn, but this has been 
entirely removed. The roof of the outer 


corridor is vaulted. For the trench in the floor, 
see Part II,, p, 2. 

Condition of the Tomb, — The tomb had, no 
doubt, been used as a dwelling-place, and to 
this are due two rounded niches in the South 
wall and a square niche in the North wall, 
which have removed a large part of the scenes. 
In order to give more light to the back room, 
an attempt was made to break away the whole 
of the framing of the inner doorway, but it was 
only partially carried out The wall-surface of 
the long hall is in a deplorable condition* The 
further half on both sides is almost entirely 
destroyed, owing, apparently, to the poor 
nature of the rock ; and the parts which ha\'e not 
so suffered are almost equally unsightly. The 
whole tomb was decorated in a peculiar way, 
each figure or group being moulded in an inset 
of plaster. This adhered so indifferently that it 
has nearly all fallen away, and has left simply 
the roughly-shaped mould which it occupied. 
(Pis. xi., xii.) The plates therefore give, for 
the most part, merely the depression which the 
figure was to occupy. As this sometimes closely 
resembles, sometimes only roughly approximates 
to the final picture, a suggested restoration of 
the outline has generally been added within.^ 

Despite present appearances and the aspect 
of the plates, the few fragments of plaster that 
remain in place show that the reliefs were 
executed with the greatest care and delicacy. 
The decoration of the tomb, however, remained 
incomplete. The lower scene on the South wall 
finished abruptly lialf way along, and of the 
upper design only fragments of the preliminary 
coloured sketch remain. 

* A more detailed description of the methods followed 
by the sculptors is giveu m an uppendix, p. 32. 

B. The Sculptured Scenes. 
1,^ — A Royal A'isrr to the Sanctuahy. 

North Wall. Upper Part. Plates v., vi., vii., xi-, xii. 

Though this subject as a wliole has no 
counterpart in other tombs, it has resemblances. 
As a representation of the Smaller Sanctuary 
it is most akin to that in TIL xxx., and to two 
pictures in the Royal Torab.^ But in each of 
those scenes, the visit of the King, which is its 
ostensible motive, is very differently pourtrayed ; 
while here there is added as a second motive, 
with a second appearance of the Royal party, 
the bestowal of rewards on Penthu. It has 
already been explained (Vol III., p. 29) in 
dealing with a similar picture of the temple, 
that the first double-gated pylon represents the 
outer gate of the Temple of the Aten ; the 
furniture which is seen behind it indicates the 
intervening courts or sanctuary ; and the second 
pylon, with the building attached to it, is the 
Sjualler Sanctuary* 

The Itoyal party stand outside the temple, 
the King holdinj]: up his haods in a reverential 
attitude. The Princesses Mcrytaten, Jleket^ 
aten and another, with the usual attendants, 
accompany their parents.^ Five chariots, one 
of them with royal plumes, wait outside. 

The furniture, by which the intervening places 
of offering are symbolized, corresponds most 
closely to that of the last courts of tbe larger 
temple or to that of the dependent building at the 
rear of the smaller. It is ooly in the latter that 
the tables with curved legs, which crowd the 
space here, occur again (I, xi., xxxiii,). This 
picture of the temple, however, finds its closest 
parallel in the IJoyal Tomb, wbere the rays 
strike through the building in the same way, 

* MoUn du Culte d'Atmioii, I. i. 

^ Lepsius took away with hira a piece of falling plaster, 
slmwing two heads of female fan-hearera. (Lkpsius, 
IK Text, ii., p. 133,) They iinist be from this group 
(Ph xi.). Dr. Schaefer kindly sent me an excellent 
drawing of the fragment (No. 521 in the Berlin Museum) 
wiiich is reproduced on Plate ii. 


and the joints of meat stacked on tables and in 
shrines are a simiLar feature ; but where the 
Smaller Sanctuary^ like the Greater, is indicated 
only by furniture and gates. ^ 

Penthu and one or two fellow-priests meet 
the King at the gates, and the picture suggests 
that the King presently took the opportunity to 
show his favour to this worthy by substantial 
rewards. I'ossibly the similar scene below 
(PI. viii,) records the reward of Penthu*s in- 
dustry as Chancellor, that on the South wall 
the honour done him as Chief Physician, or Privy 
Councillor, and this his recompense for true 
discharge of his duties as Chief Servitor of Aten, 
the scene of his exertions being in each case 
chosen as the scene of his reward. The occasion 

is described as '' Rewarding ^ the 

Intimate of the King, the Chief Servitor of 

Aten '* Over Penthu's head is the 

stereotyped acknowledgment by the lucky 
courtier — ^" Abounding in wealth and knowing 
who bestows it " ^ A longer inscrip- 
tion, which, no doubts gave the reason for the 
ceremony, has fallen from its setting. 

The faces of the royal pair, too, have perished, 
with the exception of the chin and neck of the 
Queen, a fragment which, being moulded with 
extreme care, makes us regret the loss ofthere- 
mainden The mannerism of the earliest period 
is indeed not entirely kept under. The chin, 
however, isunexaggerated, and the neck, though 
lean, is such as llossetti might have drawn. 
The muscles are strongly indicated ; the cheeks 
are hollow, giving prominence to the cheek- 
bones, and suggest a hard, masculine aspect. 
It thuB conveys a different impression from 
the painted profile on the opposite wall (PI, x.), 

^ The inference would be that this part of the Royal 
Tomb was decorated at the pcrioil of the change from 
the South to the North necropolis. But this seems ira- 
possihle unless the one wall of the room which represents 
mourning for Meketaten were decorated later* 

* Emending to ^^^ ^ - 

' Cf* I., viii. ; III,, p, 13, where the rendering is incorrect* 

and from other portraits of the Queen (cf. Pis. 
xv», xxxi.) and is not convincing. The iignre 
does not extend below the collar-bones ; for, by 
some inexplicable slovenliness, the cutting out 
of the matrix for the figure had gone no further, 
and the modeller in plaster, finding his basis 
fail, had to round otF his work as best he 
could (PL xii. d). 

Behind the Royal party is seen the familiar 
columned pylon, the entrance gate to the 
Smaller Sanctuary. The appearance of this 
building has already been described from 
better representations (III pp. 21-25). The 
walls screening the entrance inside are shown, 
but the only furniture of the interior now 
visible consists of numerous shrines stacked 
with bread and meat."* The sun's rays 
penetrate the building, and the sky extends 
overhead till it reaches the supporting moun- 

2.^TiTB Reward of Penthu. 

North Wall, Lower Part. Plates viii., ix. 

Sufficient remains of this greatly injured 
design to show that it was the fellow and 
perhaps the original of one in the tomb of 
Meryra, which it resembles in all essentials 
(I. xxix.-xxxi,). It has been suggested already 
that the same subject once had a place in the 
hall of Panehesy (IL p, 21))/ and this warns 
us forcibly how little there may be in these 
pictures that is personal to the owner of the 
tomb. As the selection of verses on the grave- 

* Possihly at the time of these early designs the great 
temple of the Aten was, in fact, little more than a series 
of courts entered by pylons, and the furniture still of the 
simplest. Cf. PL xx. The sun s rays entering the 
builchng everywhere would then he even more noticeable 
than at later periods. 

* Panehesy, as Superintendent of the Granaries and 
Cattle of Aten, would seem to have the beat claicp to the 
desigo, and possibly it originated with him ; for his tomb 
might be contemporary with Penthu's, Whether his 
fellow-oflicials adopted it with equal justice, or any 
justice, we caunot determine. 


stones of an English churchyard are determined 
much more by the limited reperfoire of the 
local sculptor than by any aj>plicability to the 
deceased, originality being extremely rare; so 
also was it in Akhetaten. 80 small was the 
number of stock designs that tlieir connection 
^\ith the personal history of the deceased might 
be very remote. The personality of these 
officials of Akhenaten becomes very attenuated 
when we observe tliat the tombs of Ahmes, 
I^enthu, Panehesy and Meryra are illustrated 
with much the same subjects, whether the 
owner is a High Triest, a Chief l*hysician, or a 
Superintendent of the Court-house* The prayers 
and biographical statements put into the mouth 
of the deceased are also largely professional 
compositions; and even the short legends and 
dockets, in which we might hope to find a 
personal note, generally at El A mania show^ 
signs of being stereotyped, too. There is, how- 
ever, a certain degree of liberty. There are, 
nearly always, differences of treatment and ex- 
pression ; the artist then, as now, despised the 
ignoble role of a mere copyist, and it is in these 
variations that we shall find, if anywhere, signs 
of indi\idual fortune and character. 

The inscription accompanying the picture of 
Meryra sets forth that lie was rewarded for 
filling the temple with all kinds of provisions iVir 
offerings. The fragments of the corresponding 
but shorter notice here make it probable that 
its tenour, and even its w^ording, w^ere very 
similar. But the reference to l*entliu is lost. 
Apparently similar services and rewards were 
claimed in both eases. 

As in the later picture/ the opening scene 
shows the freight ships drawm up side by side at 
the river bank, with their prows moored to the 
shore. There are nineteen single-masted vessels. 
Fragments of plaster with detail (mooring-stakes, 
landing planks, cartouche-headed steering 

paddles, figures standing by piles of produce, 
&c,) show that the copy of Meiyra followed this 
closely. The cattle-yards, however, are not in 
this tomb placed on the river-bank, but at the 
end of the picture, and in their place we have 
here a glimpse of the gardens and villas which 
lay along the quay. Between these and the 
ships is a broad band, Avhich may represent 
either the qu iy or the river. It is impossible 
to see whether the two strips of garden are 
simply such or contain colonnades.- There is 
a stiip of sky over each, indicating perhaps 
that they lie side by side, not one beyond the 
other. The rest of the line of buildings and 
gardens is lost, except for a small fragment 
(on a larger scfile in ix. a.) The rest of the 
wall-space up to the store-yard was occupied 
apparently by numerous chariots and their 

The enclosing wall of the store-yard is shown 
running round on all sides. In its outer court 
the King and Queen, accompanied by three 
princesses, their nm^ses (recognizable by their 
I bending attitude, PL ix, e.), and a numerous 
suite, receive Penthu, He, on his side, has witli 
him a considerable company of shade-bearei*s, 
scribes, officials and attendant priests ; for it 
is presumably in his capacity of Chief Servitoi' 
of Aten that he has earned the distinction of 
the golden insignia.^ Tlie response of Penthu to 
the Kind's crenerositv is on a strictlv official 
model " Give health to Pharaoh (life, prosperity 
and health to him ! ), thy fair child, Aten, 
Grant that he may complete [thy duration ; 
grant it for ever.] " 

Behind the royal party is the granary, filled 
with heaps of grain (cf. L xxxi,) From here 
onward the wall-surface is destroyed, partly by 

' The lull description given in Part P,pp. 33-30, allows 
1X36 to be more brief here. 

- Cf. the picture of the river bank in the tomb of Maj 
(V. v.), Mo7i, (hi Cuite (rAtonou, L xxxv. 

^ See Plate ix c. Also L*H6te, Letlres Scrites, p. 61, 
Enough details of this group and its text remain to 
justify their restoration on the exact lines of the 
replica in L xxx. 


natural decay, partly by loss of a great patching 
block which had been fitted in with pUtster, 
Probably a picture of the treiisury occupied the 
space, but all that now remains is a fragraent 
showing the cattle-house. The stalls are seen at 
the top of the picture, and between them and the 
front wall (below) are eight (?) groups of cattle, 
each tended by a cow-keeper (PI. ix. i>., Cf. L 

3.^ — Pekthu honoured in the Palace, 

South Wall. Lower Part. Plate viil. 

Tliis scene seems to be similar to that on the 
lower part of the West wall of Ahmes (IIL 
xxxiii,, xxxiv,), and, so far as wc can gather 
from the fragmentary state of both pictures, 
represents the reward of the Court official. 
Hence the ceremony takes place in the palace 
itself; the opportunity thus given for architec- 
tural display being perhaps one reason for the 
introduction of the scene. 

The King here sits in the great reception room 
of the palace, and from IIL xxxiv. w^e should 
infer that the Queen was shown seated behind 
him.^ Consistently with other representations 
of this hall, a row of four columns is shown, ^ 
The picture of the interior of the palace on the 
right is different in arrangement from those 
hitherto met with, and as it more nearly 
resembles the picture in the Southern tombs, a 
closer study of it may be deferred. 

Penthu is standing before the King in grateful 
acknowledgment of the royal gifts which two 
attendants are fastening upon him* On the left 
the front wall of the palace is seen, with its 
facade represented above in elevation. The 
gateway and side-door below must represent the 

A . ^^ 

' T ought probably to have placed two animals only in 
the upper f^roups also. 

■ The suggested figure of the Queen iu front is to be 
deleted. More likely fan -bearers stCMi^d here* 

3 The fourth is bebiud the Iving, passing through a 
group of jars. 

entrance to the court of the palace from the 
street : if out of place in regard to the whole it 

is in true relation to the facade, and more cannot 
be expected from an Egyptian draughtsman. 
Nor is unity of time considered essential. The 
figure of Penthu is found again outside the 
gates, where he receives the congratulations of 
his friends, and, as his name and titles are seen 
above another group, he may have appeared 
there also in some other role or at another stage 
in the proceedings. His chariot awaits him * 
and a military escort is in attendance. To judge 
by a half-effaced inscription on the left, Penthu 
was accompanied by a crowd of his subordinates 
in office.^ 

The gate on the extreme left (on which the 
last strokes of the sculptor seem to have been 
spent) appears to be a repetition of the entrance 
gates (cf, II. xiv.). 

i — Thk King and Queen at Meat, 

South Wall Upper Part. Plate x. 

Only a few fragments of painting remain here, 
Imt it has been found possible to build up a 
picture on them. Though the scene is familiar/ 
its execution is most interesting. The deft 
brush of the Egyptian draughtsman never 
showed to better advantage in the outlines 
secured ; for the suggestion of restful ease and 
lanefuid movement is admirable* The hands also 
show that the artist was better able to depict 
flexibility and softness than the sculptor to carry 
it out, and the fragments of the profile convey 
his impression of the royal lineaments more 
accurately than most of the finished portraits. 
The shape of the cup (?) which the Queen 
holds is noteworthy. The painting is in red 

* The suggested royal plumes have no justification. 
^ ** The people of the store-bouse and the subordinates 

of this house (reading ^ ^r^ P 1^ "^ ^ I )* 

(Plate ix. B.) 
" IIL iv,, vi., xxxiv* 


outline with the flesh in solid red, but blue is 
also used on the collar : the cup is left white. 

This group lies about six feet from the right 
end of the wall. It shows the King and Queen 
(with a princess beside her ?) seated on chairs, 
each before a pile of viands. A hand on the left 
suggests that a figure of equal size and impor- 
tance sat facing the King, and the picture in 
Huya's tomb leads us to ask if it can be Tyi. 
Conceivably, however, it might be the hand of 
Penthu or some other official in attendance.^ 

5. — Titles of Penthu. 

Penthu is entitled (Plates iii. and iv.) : — 
Royal Scribe. 
Intimate of the King. 

* The hand is at its true level in the Plate, but it should 
be some distance further to the left, as if it were helping 
itself from the same table. 

Chief Servitor of Aten in the temple of Aten 
in Akhetaten. 

Chief Physician. 

Privy Councillor {ami khent). 

The following epithets are also applied to 
him (Plate ii.) : — ^ 

Royal Chancellor. 

Sole Companion. 

Attendant on the feet of the King. 

Favourite of the Good God. 

Beloved of his lord. 

He who approaches the person of the God. 

Chief of Chiefs. 

Companion, chief of the Companions. 

Though we know little of the special duties 
which these varied offices and honours entailed, 
it is plain that Penthu's rank was high and 
brought him into close relations with the Court. 

' All these are borrowed by or from Ahmes (III. xxvii.), 
along with the device on the lintel, showing that they 
were honorary titles only, applicable to any high official. 



I, SiTiiATiON.^ — It is curious that the bold 
cliffs themselves were not selected as a site for 
the earliest tombs at AkhetateDj but a low bank 
which marks the rise from the level of the plain 
to that of the great wady runnitig southward 
through the mountains. The rock is of the 
worst possible nature ; the site was limited in 
area and lay an hour's ride south-east of the 
city. Hence after a few years it was abandoned 
for the northern cliffs. These unattractive hills 
are bounded on the East and West by two Khor^ 
(drainage valleys) and are cut into three parts 
by dry water-courses, descending from the level 
of the wady. 

2p NUMBER. — ^Of the tornbs excavated here^ 
nineteen are usually open and have been num* 
bered ; ^ but there are others in a greater or less 
state of completion, of which eight appear on the 
accompanying map (Plate xiii.). Ml the tombs 
are liable to become sanded-up, so that many of 
the numbered tombs had to be excavated in order 
to secure plans. The eight lettered tombs were 
completely hidden and were cleared of sand by 
me. Most of them had been unearthed before by 
JVBL Bouriant and Barsaiiti, but no records or 
plans seem to have been made. The tombs arc 
betrayed at once by the piles of stone fragments 
tlirown out ; so that it is almost impossible that 
any large chfimber remains undiscovered, though 
there might be many of the type 9b. , 9c. There 
are also many small cuttings where a tomb was 

* 7 to 25 in conlinuation of fcho oortherD tombs. They 
arc often called the Tombs of Hagg Qaudil after the 
nearest village on the river- bauk. 

planned or whence stone was taken for inset 
(patchings, cornices, etc*), and these no doubt 
have caused disappointment to others besides 
myself. Of the tombs which I opened only 7c 
was of any size, and none showed any traces of 
inscription except 25a.' 

3, Prp:vious RECora>s. — The buried state 
of these tombs, consequent on their low posi- 
tion, kept them unknown or uncopied long 
after their first discovery. They seem to have 
been unvisited by Wilkinson, as Hay, who shared 
with him the knowledge of the tombs of Et Til, 
refers to the conspicuous tomb of Ay as '* the 
tomb opened by me/' ^ Tomb 13 also was 
opened by him and his companion Laver in 1830, 
as he records on its ceiling ; and tombs 7 and 8 
were entered, and such copying and planning 
done as were possible under the cin^umstances. 
L'HuTE did very little work here. The great 
advance which Lepsiu.s made on Hav was more in 
the publication than in the extent of his copies ; 
for though the entrances of most of the other 
tombs were plain to him, he made no attempt to 
penetrate into them. The work done by Fi^ench 
Egyptologists on the site between iH83 and 1U02 
has already been noted (Part L, p. 5). The 
result of their combined labours, long delayed 
owing to the illness and death of M, Bouriant, 

- The evident excitement under which M. Bouriant 
worked can alone account for the statement that the 
Sontb group contains more than hffcy tomhs, and that all 
the valleys are full of tbem. Deux jours tie fuuilleSt 
pp. 1, 15. 

•' Hay, MSS, 29847, fol. 65. 


has now appeared, so far as the south group is 

4. Change of Necropolis. — The transference 
of the Necropolis to the northern hills presents 
us with an unsolved problem : for the material 
changes that coincided with it suggest that it 
had real significance. The new and stricter 
name of the Aten comes into use ; the form of 
tombs undergoes considerable alteration; the 
Queen's sister disappears ; detailed pictures of 
the temple are shown and those of the palace 
are altered ; the figure of the deceased takes the 
place of the King in the doorways. None of 
these changes is startling; none perhaps was 
sudden; yet, taken together, they show that 
the 8th or Dtli year of the reign marked a 
turning-point. Probably it exhibited in some 
definite way the success of the revolution : only 
a very partial and short-lived success, no doubt ; 
yet not to be a failure was already much. 

It may well be supposed that up to this point 
all had been in doubt. Now (surely by a com- 
promise) civil peace was assured. The city had 
been solidly founded ; the temple and the palace 
erected ; - the boundaries of the sacred district 
solemnly confirmed ; the Queen's sister married 

^ Momunents paur scrvir a Vetiule du Cidtc d'Atonoic en 
Egyjptc, Tome I. Les Tovibes de Khouitatonou, Par 
MM. U. BouBiANT, G. Legrain et G. J^quieb. 1905. 
The previous publications of texts, <fcc., by M. Bouriant I 
{Beux jours defouillcs a Tell el Amama) and M. Daressy | 
{Recucilf XV., p. 36) being superseded by and referred to | 
in that work, I shall not cite them in addition. | 

As far as possible I have worked on the site with 
previous copies before me ; so that where I dififer from my 
predecessors I must be understood to have fully con- 
vinced myself that they were in error. I may add that, | 
except for deliberate mutilations, and inscriptions in ink 
on the fa9ade or in the entrance of tombs, the records, 
with rare exceptions, do not appear to have deteriorated 
since the days of Hay. 

' Perhaps temporarily the court had settled further to 
the south (in the mansion with the smaller painted 
pavement ? ), but now moved northward to the newly- 
built quarter of the city ; the necropolis, naturally, ! 
shifting with it. • 

off, in a way, perhaps, that had political results^ ; 
a new influx from Thebes was changing some- 
what the first fashions in which the King's 
influence and local mannerisms had been un- 
challenged. All this is hypothetical ; but some 
such change, important yet not radical, seems 

5. Abchitecture. — The originality so marked 
at this epoch in other directions is not less pro- 
minent in tomb architecture. There was a com- 
plete break from the traditions of Theban tombs 
both in form and in mode of decoration. The 
ordinary T-shaped chamber is unknown at El 
Amama, and so also is decoration in colour on 
plaster. Papyrus columns everywhere replace 
the square pillar of rock where support is needed 
for the roof. If Akhenaten fails to win our ad- 
miration away from the bright colour and rich de- 
tail of the Theban tomb, his architecture at least 
is in the highest degree imposing, especially in the 
Southern Group, where the larger tombs almost 
reach the dignity of rock-temples. There is no 
other necropolis like this in Egypt. Beside the 
solid masonry of Saqqareh, the magnificent 
simplicity of Beni-Hasan, the rich colouring of 
Thebes, must be set the graceful architecture of 
the tombs of Hagg-Qandil. The row of complex 
columns finishing at the wall in pilasters 
with cavetto-comice, and carrying either a 
simple or a corniced architrave, is an architect- 
ural element which, by its harmonious blending 
of straight lines with curves and of the plain 
with the broken surface, may bear comparison 
with features of classical architecture that have 
become imperishable models. The breaking 
of the plain wall-surface by double corniced 
portals, or by the door and lattice, also shows 
admirable decorative taste, and we can only 
regret that no free-standing building remains in 
Akhetaten. Unfortunately the period was so 
short and the work so hurried that we have to 

3 But not, it would seem, to Horemheb, the future King 
of Egypt. See Sethe, A .Z. 1905, p. 134. 


"complete the tombs in imap:ination. One and 
all they remcain sketches wliich show the restless 
genius of the artist; and if there seems no great 
variety of type, no more indeed than indicates 
that the type was variable, we must remember 
that the tombs of the group appear to be the 
product of two or three years at most* 

B. ToMB-rORMS.— The most uatunil impulse in 
tomb-(]Uarrying is to gain wnll-space with least 
labour. To this the corridor answers best. It 
might He athwart the entrance or in line with 
it, and though the latter arrangement had the 
advantage of taking small frontage space, the 
cross corridor was geuurally adopted, as it 
secured room for expansion, Jn the South group 
only tombs IS, 19 and 23 adopted the direct 
corridor. It was imitated in tombs *^ and o, but 
there the cross-corridor (with false doors) was 
added at the fuHher end, thus forming an 
exact T. 

The smallest tombs are all of the cross-corridor 
typCj with a false door (shrine) at each end and 
another opposite the entrance (tombs 7, 11, 17). 
If time and means permitted, the breadth of the 
corridor was doubled, the back wall becoming a 
row of columns doA\m the centre (commenced in 
Nos, 10, 12, 20: nearly completed in 7c, 13), 
Or it might be trebled or quadrupled by having 
two rows of columns (Nos. S, 14, 16) or three 
(No, 2i}). Two false doors to right and left on 
entering still bore >vitness to the embryo-form, 
though these might be repeated in the new 
cross-aisle (Nos, S, 16). Not that the develop- 
ment actually took place in successive strips. 
After the cross-corridor was Hnished the central 
aisle might be run out to its limit, and the 
excavation begun to right and left(Nos. 21, 22). 

The simple cross-corridor tomb was, however, 
not really complete. It had no place for burial 
(only a shaft in the chamber in tomb 11), and it 
was intended tliat the door in the back wall 
should lead to a further room, in which or 
through which the burial place should be I 
reached. In the tomb of Mahu (No. 9) this , 

I room was left quite simple and small. In Nos. 8 
and 1 5 this inner room was meant to become a 
many-columned chamber, ^ Where the cross-cur- 
ridor had become a columned hall, it w^as felt ad- 
visable to begin the burial place at once, placing 
it at the end of a flight of steps leading down from 
the floor (in the left-hand back corner, Nos. 8, 
13j 14, 16, 25). If the sttiirway was extensive, 
it was made to turn on itself so as to keep within 
the area of the tomb. The stairway, when in 
the second chamber, was on the right (Nos. 6,9, 


7. Sequence, — It is difficult to determine 

the order of succession of the tombs in this 

i group. The Princesses are always three in 

number, except in tombs D and 1 1 where Mery- 

taten alone appears. Reasons will be given for 

i doubting if these two tombs can really date as 

! early as Akhenaten's fifth or sixth year. All the 

I tombs therefore seem to be practically of one 

period, nnd I am unable to suggest with confi- 

' dence any sequence among them. Tombs 8 and 

I 23 show examples of the later form of the name 

I of the A ten, and tomb 9 uses no other. These, 

then, we should expect to be latest in date. 

i 8. Metuods of Construction. — As will be 

seen in dealing with separate tombs, they are all 

, more or less unfinished, and the decoration uf 

all is seriously incomplete. Evidently the work 

I w\as done in the utmost haste. The shrewd king 

seems to have seen that the best way to bind his 

courtiers to Akhetaten and to his enterprise there 

was to let them sec their future halls of burial 

already planned on an elaborate male and actually 

begun* A tomb was invariably quarried (nnn 

* It is from this type that the larger tombs of the North 
group arc developed, but with considerable changes of 
dimensions and arrangement. The two false doors are 
still seen in the first chamber of Meryra (No. 4) aod of 
Panehesy (No* 6). In Ihe latter they are transferred to 
Lhe back wall. 

* When the inner rooiii was added in No* G, tbe 
provisional burial place in the outer hall was abandoned 
for a more elaborate one iu its true place, the second 



the roof downwards, and to the last the ceiling 
remained the mo?;t iinislied and caccuratc portion; 
so that tlie modern snrveyor is obliged to adopt 
the laborious and inverted method of takin<2: the 
ceilin;^ as the basis of his plans. The reason for 
this is not far to seek. When one tomb was be- 
gun before its neighbour had been completed, it 
was advisable that the latter shoukl have marked 
out its claim to frontage by excavating the wliole 
breadth within. This is in fact always found 
to have been done, even il' the tomb was 
left unfinished in the rear (cf. Nos. 14, 22, 
25, etc,), 

A farther pecuharity of these tombs is tliat 
they were evidently hnished piecemeal as the 
work went on ; the last smoothness aud detail 
were given to the ceilings, architraves, cornices 
of doors, and capitals of eohirans, while the 
other half of the tomb, the colunm, the doorway, 
was still a mass of rock. The explanation, 
however, is not that, owing to a childish 
impatience to reach pleasing results or in order 
to avoid the use of scaffolding, the tomb was 
completed in sections: this feature is the 
direct result of the conditions under which the 
work was done. 8o hasty was it, so insecure 
the supply of labour, so remote the chance of 
completion, that the most expeditious method 
was the only method. Quarriers, finishei-s^ 
plasterers and decorators were employed upon 
the tomb simultaneously, one following upon 
the other's heels ; and when, as was feared, the 
ipiarriers were called away from the half-exca- 
vated tomb, tlie finishers employed the interval 
that must elapse before new work was prepared 
for them in completing the chamber to the limit 
that their forerunners had set them. The plas- 
terers moulded and whitewashed the capitals 
of columns regardless of the fact that the shaft 
was still unformed and that their work would 
be seriously impaired^ if not destroyed, should 
the excavation ever be proceeded with. The 
decorators and sculptors, who found a properly 
smoothed wall, sketched out, sculptured and 

painted their scenes, though half the chamber, 
or all save the doorway, was still vii^giu rock. 
This procedure lias been justified. But for this 
unmcthodicol haste there could have been no 
architectural beauty and no texts or scenes in 
the necropolis ; for not a single tomb reached 
completion, and only in two cases are even 
the interiors perfectly ready for decoration. 
This must be remembered in appreciating 
architectural features, and not less in drawing 
conclusions from the scenes. No evidence 
can be gathered from the absence of certain 
representations, for the subjects which would 
have occupied the remaining waUs are un* 
kuown to us. As a matter of fact all the 
pictures we have in this group, with the ex- 
ception of those in the tomb of Mahu and 
one in the tomb of Jlay, are three separate 
versions of the same design, showing the reward 
of the official from the window of the palace 
(Tombs 7, 8, 25). 

The tombs and their sculptures lie open also 
to the charge of being ^'jerry-built" ; for the 
material in which they are excavated is quite 
unsuited to theii' ambitious designs. The ad- 
mirable lines of cornice and column and the fine 
detail of sculpture are all executed in plaster. 
The stone basis for both is often of the roughest 
description. Many of the columns, owing to 
faults and fissures in the rock, are largely made 
up of plaster. No doubt a great deal of bad 
work, due to ha^te, has also been covered up 
in this way. But the Egyptian work in plaster 
was so excellent, and the insecure basis for this 
rock-architecture is so Httle to be suspected 
even now, that the passing centuries must be 
considered to have sufficiently vindicated the 
ancient architect, 

9, Later Burials. — Most, if not all, of the 
tombs have been re -used for later burials, bones 
and great mounds of sherds outside the principal 
tombs witnessing eloquently to the fact. Large 
numbers of coffins were, I believe, found by the 
first excavators^ many being burnt and others 



removed to Cairo. No notes of this Depart- 
mental undertaking have been published.^ 

10. Roads. — As in the North group, broad 
tracks, swept clear of stones, lead from the 
vicinity of the ancient town to many of the chief 
tombs. They are marked on Plate xiii. for a 
certain distance, but after three or four hundred 
yards from the tombs they visibly swerve 
from the straight line and often bend con- 
siderably, perhaps because several ran into one.^ 
Their full mapping remains to be done. 

* I hope to be able later to obtain a little evidence 
on the subject from the heaps of debris and from the 
fellahin who did the work. 

* For their further course, consult Petrie, T.A., pi. xxxv. 
Their number and direction is given in Lepbius, D. Text, 
ii. p. 148. 

The following notes on this subject may be 
added : — 

From Tomb 25. — Two roads; one leaving at 
319°, one at 322°, and seeming to strike the 
river bank at points 317° 30' and 333° 30' 
from the tomb. Twenty and twenty-two feet 

From Tomb 23. — Thirty-four feet broad. 

From Tomb 22. — Very straight. Twenty- 
five feet broad. 

From Tomb 8. — Appears to strike the bank 
303° from the door of the tomb. Twenty-nine 
feet broad. 

The uninscribed tombs, of which some plans 
are given on Plates xxx., xxxiv., will be noticed 
in Part V. 





This tuinb wus (ipeiiec] l)y M, Buuriaiit in 
1KK3^' fur the first tinier 

Malm, Chief of I'olice, was better aware than 
any odq of the risk, or rather the certainty, that 
his tomb would be jjltindered after his death* 
Instead, therefore, of hewing his chambers 
couspicuously in the face of the hills overlookiup: 
tlie plain, he chose a retired spot where the 
ground was almost flat. Driving a narrow 
stairway to a sufficient depth he formed his 
'* eternal home" cellar-wise there, where the 
whirling sands would (juickly conceal it. 
Though his aim was not permanently secured, 
tlie ruse was partially successful. The little 
tomb remained immune, not only duriu"^ the 
religious reaction that soon occurred, but from 
the assaults of modern thieves. If his little 
chamber is now the most attractive of the 
Southern tombs, it is owing not only to the 
peculiar interest of the scenes but also to the 
unsullied whiteness of a large part of the walls, 

B. AHcnrrECTiiKAL Features. 

The tomb is of the simple cross-corridor type, 
with a second chamber in the axis of entrance 

' Tomb d. The name is spelt (or misspelt) in four 
other ways in the tomb by the slovenly Bcribc. By error 
a b (?) precedes the name on the right jamb outside 
(Plato xxviii.). Can it he this hlmuler that has induced 
the editors of the French pubhcatiori to transliterate the 
name by Mabhou? It was correctly given in the first 
mstaaco by M. Bou riant, 

* BouRiANT, fkii^ jours (le foiiitlcs, p. IG, Aa might 
be expected from this title, the excavation seems to have 
been of the most summar}' sort. The tomb was published 
Iftst year in Mon. dti CuUe iVAionou^ I,, cb, xv. 

through which the place of burial is reached. 
This inner chamber is roufrhly hewn and askew, 
and the shrine at the l)ack oF it remains an un- 
finished doorway. From this chamber a wintling 
stairway of 47 steps leads down to the burial- 
place, making more than a complete turn berorc 
the owner was satisfied. Two flights bring one 
to a small chamber, and from the floor of this 
two fl lights mure descend to a room at double 
the depth of the first. This contains a burial- 
pit with a rough chamber at one end for the 
actual interment. The pit had been filled up 
with round boulders and loose stones. A niche 
in the wall at the foot of the first flight of steps 
may be a later locuhan for buriaL 

The intermediate chamber seems to reflect the 
uncertainty of life and fortune in Kgypt. Had 
Mahu died or fallen from favour just then, 
this provisional chamber must have formed his 
place of sepulture. The prospect of sudden 
arrestj or of possible elaboration of the work, 
seems to have often aftected the [>lans of the 
Egyptian architect, as it not infrequently does . 
those of his modem successoi^. Sometimes, 
perhaps J the stoppage was deliberate, the coveted 
achievement being so far beyond the immediate 
resources of the official that it was impossible to 
execute the whole plan at one outlay. 

The inscribed chamber in all finished tombs 
of this group has a doorway at each end. In 
this tomb, however, this feature is replaced at 
the North end by a round-topped stela; while 
the other^ though of the usual fonn, has its inner 
part inscril)ed, thus obviating the possibility of 
hewing a chamber or statue-shrine there* These 
door ways, plainly, have been interpreted as door- 



shaped stelae and decoratively tref\ted n9, >;uch ; 
the North stela being just a repetition uf the 
inner design of its fellow, omitting the door- 
framing. A single step leads up to the latter : 
two steps to the former. The sculpture in each 
case shows acts of worship by the royal family. 
The profile of the Queen is repeated in line on 
Plate xxix,, and in photograph on Plate xlii. 

The facade of the tomb occupies only tlie 
breadth of the nan^ow stairway, and hardl}' 
admits even of the door- framing. The com ice 
and the scene on the lintel are almost weathered 
away. The inscriptions on the jambs, as well 
as those on the corresponding doorway to the 
inner chamber, are translated on pp. 3< ^ 31 , 

The walls of the outer hall were to have been 
fully occupied by scenes in two series, an upper 
and a lower ; but, as is invariably the case in 
these tombs, the work is unfinii^hed. As a con- 
sequence the walls afford a most interesting 
exhibition of the technical methods employed ; 
for they remain in almost every stage from the 
ink sketch to the finished relief. In most cases 
the paint seerns not yet to have been applied* 
The scene on Plate xv., however^ has received 
part, if not all, of its colouring, and the 
hieroglyphs on the door-jambs, instead of being 
as elsewhere in simple l>lue, are in varied colours. 
Attention is called to the technique hiter on 
(p. 32). 

C. The Scexks and Inscriptions. 

I. — The Wall-thicknesses. 
Plates XV., xxix., xl 

The sides of the short entrance-passage to the 
tomb (representing the thicknesses of the wall) 
are ornamented in the way almost universal in 
the Southern tombs. On the left, namely, the 
Royal family are shown sacrificing at the altar of 
the Aten {Plates xv.,xl.)j and, in a lower panel, 
the figure and liturgy of the deceased (PL xxix.). 
On the other side the latter subject occupies the 

whole widL' The prnyer, which is a duplicate of 
that on the opposite wall with one or two 
variants in spellings occurs four times in this 
tomb alone,* as well as in those of Apy, Any, 
Tutu, and of Meryra in the North Group, (A 
collation of these texts will be found on Plates 
xxxii,, xxxiii,, and a translation on p. 28.) 

The texts in this tuinb contain the most 
extraordinary en'ors and are often unreadable as 
they stand, the decorator being plainly incapable 
of reading a word of that which he copied and 
having besides a corrupt or illegible exemplar. 

The portraits of Mahu which so often recur in 
the tomb agree fairly well with one another : 
but as they also differ little^ if at all, from the 
typical Egyptian official, they cannot be taken 
as a serious attempt at portraiture. 

The faces of the royal pnir in the tomb arc 
well preserved and confirm the most pleasing 
and least bizarre exaniplos elsewhere. The 
King's profile in Phitc xv,, where the work is on 
the largest scale and most carefully executed, 
strikingly resembles the plaster head found by 
Professor Petrie in the ruined town,* The pro- 
portions of the figures are bad^ erring above 
all in the excessive size of the head and 
shortness of the thighs. Yet they do not 
show the anatomical enormities which, though 
rarely perpetrated in tomb -sculpture, are 
often considered characteristic of the period,* 
and arc even supposed to reproduce similar 
physical peculiarities of the unhappy pair. 

The scene in Ph xv,, in which the King pours 
incense or oil* on the flaming bowls, while the 

* Tlie figure is shown on Plate xxix. ; the whole in 
Mon. dit Oulte d'Atonou, I., p. 97 (with some inaccura- 
cies and omissions). 

"' For variants In the foiu^ texts of this tomh consult 
Part l,r PP* 50| 51, where the text of Plate xxix. — Malm 
a, that of PI, xvi. = Mahu b, that of the S. thickness — 
Mahu c, and that of Plate xxiii, — Mabu d, 

^ Petuik, T. a,. Frontispiece. 

♦ Characteristic perhaps of work of the first few years 
of the reign, (boundaiy stelae, stelae in the palace, trial 
pieces, etc.). 

^ Cf. II. zxj^ii. for the shape of the vasseh 



Queen offers the Rceptre and a lamp (?) such as 
nlready burns on the sacrifice, calls for little 
comment. Ribbons secure the uraei to the 
Queen's lieadnrear or coiffure,^ The Kings 
sporran (in faint red ink) seems to have been 
sewn with ornaments of inlaid enamel and 
fringed with glaze pGndants, 

Here and elsewhere in the tomb only the first- 
bom daughter, :\Ierytaten, is shown;- but 
against the inference that the work belongs to 
the earliest years of the reign is to be set the 
fact that in this tomb the cartouches of the Aten 
take their later form.^ 

It scarcely seems possible that the tomb should 
have been decorated before tlie birth of Jfeket- 
atcn. For we find the hymn to tlie Aten already 
composed^ plagiarized ami corrupted ; the town 
guarded by forts; its police and government 
organized ; the peculiar artistic style and 
methods of decoration fully developed. It 
seems more likely that the artist bad no place 
in the pictures except for the heiress, who was 
now old enough to appear with her parents in 

2.— The Rewards of Mahu. 

Front Wall, N. half. Back Wall, N, half. Plates xvii., 
xviii.» xix,, xxix., xlii. 

The scenes in the hall itself have two subjects, 
the duties and the rewards of I\Iahu* The 
former subject occupies the South, the latter the 
North half of the chamber. In every case the 
scenes on each side of the stelae on the end 
walls form a part of the larger picture on the 
adjacent walL 

The design on the North half ofthe front wall 
is gone, but a fragment in ink which survives 
(PI, xxix.) shows that on the upper part Mahu 
was seen receiving the customary honours at 

* Of. STEtNDORFF, BlHeztit, pp. 156, 157. 

* One alao in the tomb of Kames (PL xxxv.) ; two oo 
most stelae; not less than thnee elsewhere. 

* As in the tomb of Any anil once in that of Tutu. 

the hands of the King from the window of the 

On the North half of the back wall we have 
as the upper picture the ink fragment shown in 
W xvii. ; the parts on the extreme left (end 
wall) ami on the extreme right are completely 
eflaced. The former probably contained addi- 
tional attendants and soldiery ; the latter 
evidently sliowed the loggia of the palace from 
which the collars were being handed to Maho by 
the King. What is left shows us the waiting 
chariots, the crowd, the close attendants of 
Malm, and a second figure of that official, 
^* Mahu, commandant of the Mazau of Akhet- 
aten."* By virtue of his office he appears to 
have been entitled to have a standard carried be* 
fore him* Unfortunately the design on the panel 
cannot any longer be deciphered with certainty ; 
it appears to present the execution of an enemy 
by the King. Mahu's men arc ranged behind 
him unarmed. He himself is lifting his hands 
in excited salutation and says, '^Thou makest 
great by troops and troops ; thou, the ruler of 
Aten (?), thou shalt live for ever/'* 

The lower scenes (Pis. xviii.j xix.) differ little 
from the last, except that the temple is substi- 
tuted for the oalace, indicatinsf another occasion 
and place for the reward of this important 
public official. The completion of the palace 
and temple would be great public events in 
Akhetatcn, and Mahu might well receive tokens 
of court favour on both occasions. Or perhaps 
the artist in decorating the tomb rather had it 
in mind to indicate Mahu's responsibilities : the 
temple and the palace which he had to protect, 
and the system of defences round the city which 
he had to maintain. In all this, of course, Mahu 
did excellently and reaped generous recognition. 

The whole of this picture, being also merely 

* The Mazau formed the police force in important 
centres, being recruited principally from a Nubian tribe 
of that name. Their Commandant was responsible to 
the Vizier or Governor. 

6 Cf. IIL xii. 



sketched out in black ink,' not only affords 
an example of the skill and method of the 
ancient draughtsman and of the basis which was 
given to the sculptor for his subsequent work ; 
but, owing to its provisional character and to 
the manual dexterity which it betrays, it brings 
the day of its execution singularly near to us. 
Tlie man whose brush traced these clever 
sketches seems to have but left his task for 
a moment and to be still in our midst. We can 
see the sculptor, too, who had looked forward 
to this task, when pressure of work elsewhere 
called him away from the tomb, deferring his 
departure for half-an-liour while his deft tool 
modelled a head of Mahu, which was to remain 
for all time tlie onlv advance on the ink desiim 
(Photograph, Pi xlii.) Or perhaps Mahu him- 
self, intensely chagrined at the stoppage of the 
work, would not release the craftsman until he 
had at least seen his own portrait elaborated. 

Mahu, wearing the festal cap, and witli his 
neck laden with collars, kneels in prayer or 
homage before the great gate of the temple. 
The whole scene is the familiar one of the 
reward of tlie faithful official by the King, and 
the inscriptions confirm it The Ring, however, 
is not present, unless the scene on the other 
side of the door (PL xxii.) is to be brought into 
connection with it. Otherwise we must suppose 
that Mahu, after being honoured as shown in 
the scene above, presented a thankoffering at 
the gate of the temple, an<l this prayer for his 
royal master, "Health to [r*hiiraoh] ! Life, 
prosperity and health to him ! Aten^ vouch- 
safe him forever, (namely) Ua-en-ra, who forms 
by (his) Kar 

Mahu is followed by fifteen of his men, ** the 
Mazau of Akhetaten/* led by their officer and a 
standard-bearer, who all praise their God or 
their King with upraised arms and cry, ^' The 
good ruler (?) who makes monuments to the 

* Facsimiled here from tracings. 

Father ! He does it again and again, for ever 
and even The good master ! " 

In the row above, Mahu is seen again at tlic 
head of liis force. It is led as before, but is 
now ranged in six ranks of five.* A formal 
review of the police of Akhetaten may have pre- 
ceded the honour shown to their Commandant * 
or it represents the orderly march to the temple. 
Above thein is AVTittcn, " the police of Akhet- 
aten sing and shout the refrain^ (lit, "^so as to 
say/) ' He promotes [in masses, in masses. So 
long as Aten dawns] he will endure eternally/ ** * 

Mahu's charioteer and saises outside the crowd 
join in a similar cry, " He promotes by (?) num- 
berless masses. He shall live eternally like Aten/' 
Women and children (of Mahu's harem ?) join in 
the general jubilation. (Photograph, PL xlii.) 

3.^ — A Royal Inspection of the Defences. 

Back Wall. Southend. Plates xii,, xx., xxi,, xxii., xL 

This picture has such evident reference to 
Mahu's calling that it must have been designed 
for this tomb. Nothing similar occurs else- 
where, though the chariot and the occupants 
were reproduced by Ahmes (IIL xxxii., 
xxxii. a). In PL xx. the royal chariot is seen 
leaving the temple. This building is repre- 
sentedj as in PL xviii,, simply by the front 
elevation, a mode which is not elsewhere em- 
ployed. A peculiarity is the terrace, reacliod 

* III both cases those with the pointed flaps to their 
tunics are to those with a sqaarely-enchng cloth as two to 
one ; whether as iadicating a ditlerencc of race or function, 
or merely for diversity's sake, is not clear. Five men 
seem to form a unit. 

be meant. This scribe is capable of any en-or. 


Cf. I. viii, ; IH. lii., xvi., 




by an ascent, on which it is set: an explana- 
tion of this has been previously suggested.^ 

The Queen and Princess are in the King's 
chariot, instead of each driving her own, as in 
later representations. The Queen, regardless 
of the situation, seems to pester the King with 
talk, though his whole thought is given to the 
management of his steeds. These are not the 
more easily controlled because little Merytaten 
is playfully poking their haunches with a stick ! 
(PI. xii. r.) It will be noticed how exceptionally 
human and unrestrained the pictures are in this 
tomb, and in consideration of this we may well 
pardon Mahu and his artist their illiterate texts. 

The officials have an even more difficult task 
than the King. Not only Mahu and his fifteen 
police (PL xxi.), but also the plump vizier and 
his deputy, feel obliged to run before the 
chariot. The gait of these two is suggestively 
constrained in comparison with that of the 
active policemen. The objective of the ex- 
cursion is the little blockhouse shown on PI. xxi. 
above the door.* It is merely a windowless 
tower entered by a door on the ground floor, 
with provision for defence from the roof by 
means of crenellated and overhanging ramparts. 
A protection is afforded against night attack by 
a quadruple line of posts round it, connected 
by rails or ropes. Probably they are rather 
in the nature of entanglements, set a short 
height from the ground, and may easily have 
been arranged so as to give an alarm within 
when displaced.^ 

' Part III., p. 24. For the facade with masts see I. xii., 
xxvii., II. xviii. In Plate xviii. here the terrace is 
emphasized, and there are shown to right and left of the 
columns those pilasters in which each row of columns 
terminates, and which are such a feature of the local 
tomb-architecture See also Jfon. du Cultc d^Atonou, I. i. 

■ For the arrangement of this wall see the Key on 
Plate xxvii i. 

• This device is shown again in PI. xxii., where truly 
one would have expected the posts to have appeared in 
elevation rather than in plan. It is a little more easy to 
cqplain if the obstruction was set low down. It may be 
flided that the sentries in Pi. xxviii. are not holding the 
:mm or rail, as has been stated. 

Lower Scenes (Pis. xii., xxi., xxii., xii.). — 
The round of inspection seems still to be the 
subject. The King is on the point of setting 
out again, and is turning in his chariot to 
take leave of the deputy-mayor (PI. xii.). The 
artist represents Mahu's activity and ubiquity in 
a striking way. He is there behind the vizier 
of Akhetaten to raise a loyal cry in farewell — 
" Ua-en-ra, thou livest for ever ; thou who 
hast built Akhetaten, acting as Ra himself (?)." 
He is seen again at the head of the police 
that remain behind, yet kneels in front of the 
detachment that prepares to run behind the 
chariot; none the less, when the chariot ap- 
proaches its destination, he is foremost in 
greeting it. 

The chariot, as it passes from the guard- 
house to the city (?), takes a road flanked with 
sentry-houses to right and left. These, too, 
like the block-house, are linked together by 
post and rail, for better defence against surprise 
(PL xl.). Each sentry has his prescribed beat, 
and as the royal chariot passes each inclines in 
respectful salute, or lifts his hands in acclaim, 
according as he perceives his master act. The 
unarmed escort of police seems to witness still 
more powerfully to the popularity of the King 
and the law-abiding character of the city. 

4. — Policing the Capital. 

Front Wall. South end. Plates xxiv., xxv., xxvi., xii. 

Upper Scenes. — No written clue being 
given, the scenes upon this wall are a dumb 
show which might admit of more than one 
interpretation. The picture has been thought 
to represent the taking of octroi dues at the 
outposts from caravans or peasants coming into 
the city with produce. It must be remembered, 
however, that almost the whole of the supplies 
of Akhetaten would be likely to reach it by 
river, cultivable land on the east bank being 
scanty and the roads to North and to South 
mountainous. We have already seen the im- 



posts wliieh wore laid iipoii the suiTounding 
country for the support of the temple arriving 
in this way.^ Probably, too, the scribe who is 
ever to the fore on such occasions, would be 
more noticeable. 

I would ratiier rtu«i^est that the scenes show 
Malm superintending the periodical revictual- 
ling of the guard -houses. Above the door 
in 1*1. XXV* Malm, with a detachment of ten 
men, is seen coming, as I assume, to take what 
is requisite from the Government stores in the 
city, where wine, furniture^ vessels, cloth, 
sacks, &e., are to be liad. An employe 
there seems to be foi*bidding him to take any- 
thing without a signed warrant. On the right 
therefore (PL xxiv,) we see Mahu having a 
colloquy with the vizier of Akhetaten - and a 

lesser official, ^* of the Lord of the 

Two Lands, praised by him, Heqanefer.'' 

They are gathered roundabrnzier of burning 
coal or logs, which is always welcome early 
in the day during the Egyptian winter. The 
result is satisfactory, and when Mahu^ returns 
to the store with his authorization he meets 
with a very different reception from the 
authority in charge. Everything and every- 
body is now at his disposal. 

Mahu draws his supply of weapons, etc., from 
the stores, but the daily tale of fi^esh provisions 
is brought by the villagers to the guard-house. 
This scene is shown in the lower division of 
Plato xxiv. There, women and children are 
seen bringing fish, bread, water-jars, and even 
flowere, on asses, or on their shoulders. They 
are received at the guard -house, and when the 
quota is complete the scribe i^eports to Mahu^ 
wlio, attended by bis dog, inspects the array of 
food (l*I:»te XXV,), The block-house is similar 

' PI, viii., and I. xxix. 

^ His title is searcely legibie, but his dress is dis- 

'^ The hieroglyphs overhead only gave liis name and 
rank once naore. 

to that akeady seen, but here the inner arrange- 
ment is shown. It is apparently three-storied, 
the ground-floor being used for storage of food ; 
the room above as a guard-room, for here a 
fully armed sentry keeps his watch ; while the 
topmost storey forms an annoury (PI, xxiv.). 

Lower SrKNiEs. — The meaning of the picture 
below is somewliat more obvious. In the early 
morning JLihu is called out of his house to hear 
a report of his subordinates.* A brazier of 
burninir embers is brous^ht outside and blown 
or stirred into a bright blaze by a house-servant 
(Pis. xii., xxvi.). There Mahu, leaning on bis 
staff, listens to the news. The whereabouts 
of some malefactors has been discovered. At 
ouce everv one is alert and brisk. The 
chariot already awaits its master, and a posse of 
six men is iimning at the summons, armed 
Avith batons, curious forked sticks, and a 
javelin (?). Mahu, escorted by four of his men, 
drives off, and the capture is effected. It is 
his duty to bring offenders before the vizier 
for judgment, and this final episode is also 
represented, Tlie vizier stands outside the 
porch of a gateway, attended by ''the chief 
princes of Pharaoh (Life, Prosperity and Health 
to him ! ) and the commandei*s of soldiery who 
stand in the presence of His Majesty'' (PI. xli.). 
Malm dismounts and brings forward his 
prisoners with the words, *' Examine ye, 
princes, (these) men whom the foreigners have 
instigated " (r). The tliree Iiand-cufted wretches, 
who seem to be spies or assassins, are of 
difterent nationalities ; one may be an Egyptian, 
the others perhaps Bedawin. The exclamation 
of the vizier, *' As the Aten endureth ! As the 
ruler endureth ! " probably evinces his admira- 
tion at the importance of the capture/^ 

It is a scene which, in reference to a smaller 

* What remains of the ink-sketch of hia Irome is shown 
on PL XXV. Note especially the figure of the servant 
warming his hands over the iire. 

^ I am iiidelited to Mr. Gritlith for the precise 
signiticaace of the final scene a^ given above. 




matter, might be enacted in any Egyptian 
village to-day.^ As to the jars, etc., which 

* Curiously enough, while engaged upon the scenes, I 
had a striking proof that life in Egypt is little more mut- 
able than the art which represents it. Being called out of 
the tomb one day by the sound of voices, I found that the 
police of the excise had lain in wait in the early dawn and 
had captured two miserable salt-diggers, whom they were 
driving off to the village, bent double as in the picture ; 

appear above the chariots, it is hard to say 
whether they connect this scene with that 
above, merely fill up space, or represent stolen 
property recovered by the activity of the 

no doubt to go through a similar examination from the 
village dignitaries in the midst of the ruins of Akhetaten. 
And yet the world moves ! This contemptible salt-mono- 
poly was abolished a few months later. 




A. ARCHiTRCTnuAL Featubeh. 

Plate XXX. 

This tomb us it stands is sinallj simple, and 
rude, Only the door and entnince-wav are 
completed and decorated. The passage to it 
through the rock slope has not yet been cut 
down to the floor-level, so that one destiends by 
rough steps into the tomb. The framing of the 
doorway had the customary form and decoration, 
l>ut only the inscription in coloured hieroglyphs 
on the right jamb is now worth reproduction (PI, 
xxxix. Translation on p. 31), That on the 
left-hand had similar cartouches and apparently 
the same text, but the pei^onal name had not 
been cut. The lintel showed the familiar design 
of the King, Queen and three princesses wor- 
shipping the sun, but it is almost erased. The 
tomb was prubaldy sanded-up when the religious 
reaction took place, and did not suffer outrage. 
Hence the two sides of the entrance provide us 
on the one hand with the best-pi-eservcfl |>ortraits 
of the King and Queen, an*l on the other witli 
the best-preserved text of the shorter hymn to 
the Aten, 

The interior is very rough. The narrow 
cross-corridor was to be enlarged into a liall, 
with a row of four columns and two pilasters 
down the centre. These features, however^ 
are only roughly bh>cked out, a slanting lissure 
in the rock which travei'ses the chamber 
having discouraged the quarriers. 

' Toiub 10. Published in Mofu du Cnfic d'Atonon, I, 
pp. H7-92. Pis. xxxviii., xxxix. » xl. 

B. The St exks and iNscRirrioNS. 

The panel which represents the royal fiuailvat 
woi'ship is executed in the best style of the 
period and is still excellently preserved (Plates 
XXX i,, xliv.). The scene was painted, and the 
blue of the sky, the hieroglyphs and the helmets 
is still of startling brightness. The zeal with 
which the artists of Akhetaten sought anatom- 
ical correctness, generally with the most unhaiJ()y 
results, is seen in the modelling of the collar- 
bone and the neck-muscles. The figures are but 
little exaggerated. The King's profile, which is 
perfectly [ireserved, shows a considerable varia- 
tion from that in tlie tomb of Mahu (PL xv,), 
the lips being more sharply cut and the angle of 
the nose different. This of Apv strikes one as 
more conventional, but the impossible angle 
given to the skull, and especially to the occiput, 
in the heads of the period throws out the whole 

The only other feature of interest in the con- 
ventional scone is the offering made bv the 
King and Queen, votive pieces, namely, of happy 
device^ wherein in the one case the Queen, in 
the other two of her daughters, sujiport the car- 
touches of the Aten, The King otters for his 
family^ the Queen lor herself;- and it seems 
to be a visible pledge that the members of 
the Royal family are one in loyalty to Aten and 
deserve the royal epithet '' upholding the name 
of Aten/' 

=• So also in Petrie, TA,^ pi, xii., and Steindorff, 

Blidezeii, p, 155. In the former the Queen wears four 
feiithers, aa the princesses here wear three, perhaps in 
impersonation of Maat. 


As elsewhere,* the name of the Queen is I trance will be found on Plates xxxii., xxxiii., 
caressed with prettj^ phrases ; she is " the hered- in collation with others, and a translation on 
itary princess, great in favour, lady of grace, p. 28. The text, like those in a corresponding 
dowered with gladness ; the Aten rises to shed situation in the tombs of Mahu, Rames, Tutu 
favour on her and sets to multiply her love ; the and Ay, does not occupy the whole of the wall- 
great and beloved wife of the King, Mistress of space. A kneeling figure would have been 
South and North, Lady of the Two Lands, added below, and the space to the right, here 
Nefertiti, w^ho lives always and for ever.'* and elsewhere, is left blank, in order that the 

She is followed by her three daughters with text might be read when the door was throAvn 

sistra. back against this wall. Perhaps the space was 

The space below this was filled with a figure (r) sometimes coloured in horizontal bands to re- 

of Apy and his prayer, but only in ink.* The present this plank-door, as in the tomb of 

figure has completely disappeared and the text Ahmes (IIL xxviii.). 

nearly so. The latter was only another and The ceiling of the entrance- way was mu'ked 

abbreviated copy of the hymn on the opposite off into two panels for colouring by three 

wall. It added, however, at the end the perso- columns of hieroglyphs. Of the latter only 

nal note, which is wanting in the oilier, " for that on the left (East) side is cut (Plate xxxii. : 

the ka of the Royal Scribe and Steward, Apy, translation on p. 31). Traces of ink show 

who lives again." that the right column also began with the same 

The text on the right hand side of the en- formula. Apy is given no other titles than those 
- — - of Royal Scribe and Steward. TVe are not in- 

3l>^"''*/^!i"*\?^*^;^i u 1'. T rv. o, i f<>™^ed what household it was which he con- 

' Pteproduced in Jdon. du CuUe d Atcrioii, I., pp. 90, 91, i „ , 

but the figure appears to be fictitious. It is plain that ! tro'l^J* ^o t'^^'^t l^e may have been past active 
the reading of the text was already very uncertain. ! ser\*ice. 




A. Architectural Features, 

Plate xxxiv. 

This tomb is a small one, and of the simplest 
cross-corridor type. There wiis indeed little 
encouragement to anything anibitioun, for a 
broad vein of gravel inter.seets the chamber. 
The hope of enlarging or fully decorating the 
chamber was abandoned j and the walls were not 
even smoothed, 

A door, however, was fashioned in the back 
wall, and its entrance formed into a niche, ' 

Avhere seated statues of the deceased and of ' 

his wife (?) were hewn. These figures were . 

finished off in plaster, as the coarse nature of 

the rock demanded, and hence they have suffered 

considerably. They were evidently thoroughly 

pleasing and carefully worked, 

the ^vigs receiving elaborate 

treatment. The woman sits on 

the right side of the man and 

embraces him with her arm. 

Her name, which does not occur 

elsewhere, has been written on 

her lap. Apparently it is Nebt- 

ant^ a known name of the 

period. Tlie inscriptions on the door-fraraing 

are in faded ink, and are practically illegible. 

On the lintel there was a single set of the five 

cartouches, with a figure (?) and a short prayer 

at each end. The jambs appear to have con- 

' The name is spelt ® jfl %^ o^ ^lie o^ter lintel 

The tomb (No. 11) is published in Man. fin Vtitte 
d'Atoitou, Lf xxxvii. and pp. H3-b5. 


I'fl 1^ 

* K 


tained texts of the usual form, and a repe- 
tition of the titles given to liames elsewhere. 

The inscriptions on the framing of the outer 
door are in much the same state* The lintel 
showed figures of Rames adoring cartouches. 
The columns on the jambs began witli a J//- 
Itdfip-seff'if formula; proceeded with requests 
for such favours as ** the loaves which are set 
out in the Presence, bread, beer, birds,'' &c. ; 
and ended, '' for the ka of the Uoyal Scribe, 
Commandant of the soldiery of the Lord of the 
Two Lands, Rames, niaakheruy 

There is a pit in the East corner of the 
chamber; but I did not re-excavate it. The 
cfiambcr now contains part of a stone door- 
jamb (?) of Rames, which is said to have been 
found near the tomb by M. Barsanti ; '^ but 
which, as a matter of fact, was found in the 
town-ruins by Professor Petrie and conveyed 
there. The identity of name is, however, small 
proof of identity of person in the case of so 
common a name. While there is no place 
in a tomb for such a stone, its inscription 
would well suit the door-jamb of a house ; for 
it reads, '' provisions {zefajt) within the house 
of entertainment every day^ (lus) belly having 

joy may his name (?) not be lost (nea 

uehij \j\en.f)^ the scribe Karnes, born of the 
house-mistress, Huy/'^ It thus appears that 
the inscriptions on the doors of the tomb may 
be such as were also written on the doorposts 
of the living, mutatis mutandis. It need hardly 

• Mon. du Culte d^Atonott^ 1., p. H5. The copy there 
has two or three ina^ccuracics. 

* ** For the ka of* U omitted, he it ooled. 



be said that there is still less ground to identify 
this Rames with that namesiikc whose great 
tomb at Abd-el-Gurneh shows the transfor- 
mation of Amenhetep IV. into Akhenaten. He 
would hardly have narrowed his ambitions to 
so poor a burial-place as this, and his offices as 
well as the name of his Avife ('' sister ") are 
different. The title, " Steward of the House 
of Neb-maat-ra " given to Rames on Plate 
XXXV. seems indeed to show that Rames had 
held that important office under the late king, 
but it might possibly refer to some present 

B. ScBKas AND Inscbiptions. 

Entrance. Plates xi., xxxv., xl. 
The scene on the left hand iu the entrance 

presents a very different aspect from that in the 
tomb of Apy.^ It is much more simple in 
design, and the plaster in which it is moulded 
is rapidly crambling away. The King offers 
incense, the Queen a cruse of ointment (?). As 
in the tomb of Mahu, Merytaten alone of the 
daughters is present. The cartouches of A ten 
are illegible, and their form therefore is nut 
known ; one would expect them to be the same 
as in the neighbouring tomb of Apy. 

The figure and face of Rames on the opposite 
wall are well preserved and pleasing. A 
translation of the prayer is given on p. 30. 

' This picture has been drawn for me by Mr. Harold 




(Plates xxxvi., xxxvii,, xliii.) 

The tomb of this official, who iti his zeal uiit-did 
Kings in taking an epi/jjram for a uame^^ was 
openec! by il. Bouriant in IKKS^* and cleared 
completely by M, Daressy in 1893,* but not for 
the first time ; for they found written on the 
ceiling in smoke, '* R. Hay opened this tomb 
1H30/* and '* C. Laver 1H30 measured this 

Tomb 13 is interesting only for its architect- 
ural features. Not that these differ from those 
employed elsewhere in this necropolis ; for there 
are several tombs where the same forms have 
been used on a larger scale, and carried nearer 
to completion* Yet owing to its admirable 
proportions, to its spotless whiteness and good 
preservation, this tomb, even in its half-finished 
state, is one of the most pleasing examples of 
rock-architecture in Egypt, It is the only 
instance here wliere the cross-chambei", sup- 
ported on a single row of columns, has been 
carried so far towards completion as to convey 
any idea of the ultimate effect; and no one can 
see it without being struck by the fatal loss of 
beauty in larger tombs, such as Nos. 16 or 25, 
where the columns are crowded together, 

' Three times out of four the name is written without 
the strokes of tho plural. The tomb (No. 13) has a 
chaptur devoted to it in Man. du Cultc d\ltomti, I., p. 79. 
The sketch-plan and the description, however, will be 
found on p. ti5, assigned to a 12-columned tomh. 

' ** ' Beautiful of formg ' (a name for die King) fosters/' 

'' Deux jours tie f on i lies j p. 9. 

* Eecueil^ xv., p. 38, where the inscriptiou on the jamb 
is given. 

* Laver*s plaus are given iu Hay, MSS. 29,847, foL 43. 

imitually blotting one another out, mid forming 
mazes rather than buildings. 

The chamber h divided down the centre by a 
row of* six columns. The two central ones are 
set wider apart to afford an aisle in the axis of 
entrance, and, in eunformity with this, their 
ahaci carry architraves parallel with the axis as 
well as tlic ends of tlic longitudinal architraves. 
The latter rest, or are feigiied to rest, at both 
ends on pihusters, which, according to custom, 
are furnished with a rolI*moulditig at the corners, 
and are surmounted by a cavetto-cornice and 
abacus. The columns (Fl. xxxvii,) are of the 
H-steramed type already described in Part ii., 
p. 33 ; butj like all those in this necropolis, they 
have much more graceful proportions than their 
successors in the Northern group. As they 
stand, they are without bases and spring from 
the rough Hoor, They are purO white, for 
the columns of this group do not seem to have 
been meant to receive colour. 

A portal is set in the back wall, which might 
have led to a second chamber or shrine, had 
the enterprise been carried to a finish. The 
chamber i-ctains traces of its embryo form, the 
narrow cross-corridor tomb, in the portals in 
which tlie front half of the chamber terminates 
to right and to left. These are double in form, 
showing a doorway within a doorway, a hand- 
some decorative feature which we shall meet 
with frequently in these tombs. The chamber 
is not well laid out, being askew with tlie axis, 
and the transverse architraves are still more 
seriously out of the square. The heightening 
of the room to^vards the back, however, may 



be an architectural means of increasing its 
apparent size. 

As is plain from the plates, the chamber is 
only half finished, and this in a curious manner, 
the upper part being in a final state down to 
the last detail, save inscription and colour, while 
the lower part is untouched ; so that the slim 
columns seem to be emerging slowly and 
without injury from a subsiding bank of rock. 
This feature, though very marked in this tomb, 
is noticeable in nearly every other, and has 
already been commented upon (p. 10). 

Burial-place. — It is evident that there was 
no longer any hope of completing the tomb 
when the burial was made. As soon as the 
central aisle was finished to the foot of the 
columns and the whole area was cleared well 
down below the capitals, the quarriers con- 
fined their labours to the North-East corner, 
where the stairway to the sepulchre was 
usually placed. Disengaging the columns first, 
they then sunk a well at the spot without 
staying to remove the intervening rock, and, 
forming a stairway in it, burrowed into the 
Eastern wall without paying any heed to the 
original plan of the tomb. The stairway was 
carried little further than was absolutely 

necessary, and from the level landing at the 
foot a rough and slightly descending gallery 
was driven at right angles to it, of size sufficient 
to receive a coffin. The two galleries to 
right and left immediately on entering the 
stairway may, or may not, be contemporary 
in date. 

Exterior. — The entrance to the tomb was 
neatly finished, but no traces of any designs are 
now apparent. The jambs and lintel outside 
were similarly prepared, and here a hasty 
attempt was made to commemorate the de- 
ceased, and to secure for him some measure of 
preternatural grace. Inscriptions were, no 
doubt, duly sketched out on both jambs. All 
that is now visible is, on the right, the lower 
half of a column cut in the plaster, and, on the 
left, the lower third of all four columns similai'ly 
cut, and fragments of the upper part decipher- 
able through the mordant power of the ink on 
the surface (Plate xxxvii. : translation on 
p. 31). The abandonment of the work was 
so unforeseen that the royal i^renomen on 
the right jamb has not received its cartouche. 
We here learn that the owner was '' Governor 
of Akhetaten," and by holding this responsible 
post took rank as " head of the notables." 



THE TOMB OF SUTI fl ^ ^ ^)-' 

(Plates xxxviii., xxxix.) 

This tomb (No. 15) is of the cross-corridor 
type, but with the addition behind of a large 
columnar hall, or at least the rough commence- 
ment of one. The exterior door-framing, the 
entrance, and the corridor are executed with 
care and well-finished ; but no part has received 
decoration, except the facade. Here the 
prayers on the jamb are still extant, though 
much weather-worn (PI. xxxix. : translation 
on p. 31). j 

A beginning has been made of excavating 
the interior of the portals at each end of 
the corridor, no doubt with the intention of 
forming shrines containing statues, as in the 
larger tombs. These portals are of the double 
form met with in the last tomb. The chamber ' 

* Published in Mon, du Cultc d'Atoiwu, I., pp. 67-69. 
Daresst, Recueily xv., p. 42. 

behind was to have been square in shape, and 
divided into three aisles by two rows of four 
columns each. On the left, only the capitals 
of three columns have been separated from the 
mass. On the right, a little more has been 
achieved, less in the hope of completing the 
tomb than in order to secure a makeshift 
resting-place for the dead. A well (which I did 
not empty) and a little gallery to the South 
were hewn out for this purpose. 

Suti was standard-bearer of " the guild of 
Nefer-kheperu-ra." We have already met with 
guilds such as these, which were wont to take 
some royal epithet as a designation, Huya, the 
steward of Tyi, having become at a later date 
the marshal, or perhaps even the standard- 
bearer of one such.* 

Part III., PI. \\\. and p. 8. 



A. Theik Chakactek. 

The liymiis to the A ten with whicli every 
grave at El Amarna is provided show manifest 
Bignn of addition and subtraction, mid are {>ut 
together with so little literary skill that tliey 
often scarcely make sense, the pronouns^ clmnging 
from one person to another in a single sentence. 
They exhibit no instinct for true composition, 
nor even for the faithful repruduetion of well- 
known liturgies. A multitude of short phrases 
culled from the Royal ilymn or echoing its 
thoughts, or else lingering in the memory from 
some ** teaching of the King/' seems to have 
formed the Htock-in-trade of the professional 
scribe. His longer texts were made up of 
a number of these liturgical expressions, strung 
together with little regard for literary furiiL If 
tediously alike in sentiment and phraseology, 
most of the hymns are, in a sense, original com- 
positions, and afford us some insight into the 
mind of the ordinary Egyptian and his compre- 
hension of the new faith. It is somewhat 
surprising that there should be even so much 
originality^ if, as it appeal's, most of tlic tombs 
were made to the order of the Kino; ; but the 
orthodoxy of the pious phrases and the long 
adulations of Akhenaten miglit counterbalance 
this latitude in his eyes. Yet this proi:>ensity 
to compihition was not everywhere apparent. 
Huya, who perhaps was a Theban and less 
instructed in the new piety, simply went to the 
tombs of Ahmes and Penthu, and borrowed 
word for word the four longest prayers whicli he 

* I must again twjknowledgc sobstaofcial help from 
Ihc Editor in matters of translation. 

needed, Karlier^ this poverty of feeling was 
still more marked. The worthy Mahn, who 
could otily repeat for the fifth and sixth time 
the little official j>rayer which had been written 
down for him, nuiy have been specially dull. 
But Apy's more capalde scribe can do nothing 
better with his second wall -space than repeat 
the same composition ; while the Royal Hymn, 
though incomparably superioj*, was plagiarizetl 
and mutilated, but never recopied. I'erhaps 
this Royal Hymn and that feeble echo of it, 
which, in distinction, I have called the Shorter 
Hymn to the Ateu, were the only two com- 
positions that were committed to writing, and 
of these the shorter and less poetic compilation 
seems speedily to have gained popular favour. 

It might luive been thought that liere, where 
we have a freshly-composed and local hymn, 
containing the creed of a new and victorious 
propaganda, with the King himself as author 
and preacher, we should have a stereo- 
typed text free from all the corruption and 
variance that years and repeated transmission 
bring, Nothing is farther from the truth, 
Tlie great hymn is only known in one copy, and 
that not exempt from suspicion. As to this 
Shorter Hymn, no one reading it in its com- 
plete version can feel that it represents an 
original composition ; for it contains no pro- 
gression of thought and no unity. It separates, 
indeed,on considei-ation, into two distinct hymns* 
The first ends, perhaps, with the sentence, 
** thy son is pure, doing what is well-pleasing to 
thee, living Aten, whenever he appears'' ; and 
the second begins" with the words, " The son of 
the Sun/* What lies between the two seems an 



interpolatiuUj perhaps itself tukeii bodily from 
some third sooi'ce. The fidditioii raay have heeu 
due to a niisiuiderstaiuliii;^ of the jihrase, '' when- 
ever he appears," wlii*-h ^vas thought to i^efer to 
the rising of the Ateii, and tu need expansion. 

The first hymn, which roughly corresponds to 
the text in Meryra/ has unity and development, 
Kulogizing first the appearance of the visible 
god, it goes on to notice Ins creative and life- 
giving power, and then his ability to bestow 
happiness. With the day comes joy^ and this 
finds its fit expression in tlie temple worship. 
This leads to mention iA the King as chief 
celebrant in the Aten worship, and so to a con- 
cluding word in Iiis praise. The interpolated 
passage repeats the picture of all creation, the 
King, and the god rejoicing in unison ; its 
grammatical disconnection and the variant 
texts, however, suggest an alien origin. Tlie 
second hymn is a laudation of the Aten by the 
King. The words '* he says " have been dropped 
out J or are represented by a sentence '* hy the 
King, &c./' which is often added near the outset 
in the complete text. This second part also has 
a certain unity. Beginning with nn expression 
of the King's loyalty to the Aten> it goes on to 
show how the Aten passes from his lonely 
eternity to he a creator and a sustainer of a 
grateful creation frovu the plants ui>ward. 
Perhaps we have not the end of it, for tinish is 
lacking. It borrows its thought wholly, and 
often its very words, frf>m the Royal Hymn. 

Which of the texts collated on Pis. xxxii., 
xxxiii», then, is to be relied upon? Study soon 
shows us that we are far from the original, 
though we have apparently all the tonib- copies, 
through which corruption and alteration might 
have crept in. The texts plainly fall into two 
groups : Any and Meryra on the one side ; on the 
other Apy and Tutu^ with Maho (too corrupt to 
be considered in detail). The differences be- 
tween the two groups are largely in \ ocabulary ; 

if anything, the former is further from tlie 
original Capricious alterations seem the chief 
ground of varianccj and in Tutu these have gone 
to a great length and not with advantage or 

Meryra seems plainly to have curtailed 
from Any ; or perhaps from his source, since 
he omits an error of Any's, though elsewhere 
verbally alike. His lung omission, too, though 
apparently due to lack of space, is precisely 
that passage which seems interpolated. He 
seems, therefore, to ))e aware of the original 
' elements of the hymn. He even adds to it, 
j '' Meryra saith it,'' as if he were himself the 
composer. An<l, as tlie hymn smacks a little of 
the priest, this may possibly have l)een the case ; 
but only if we suppose that his scribe was using 
the extended version, and that to fill up space, 
or to secure the phrase '^ without ceasing '* as a 
fitting conclusion, he borrowed some incongruous 
passages from the supplement. It had also the 
advantage of adding a shr)rt laudation of tiie 
King to the very curt reference of the originaL- 
Apart altogether from the intrinsic merit of 
the hymn, the appearance of variants of this 
character and number when the pecidiar cir- 
cumstances ought to have elimiTiated all the 
causes of variation, presents a problem, the 
study of which may have much value for 
textual criticism. I hope others Avill reach a 
clearer perception of the process by which the 
original hymn has taken the forms before us. 
At present it is plain that both oral antl written 
transmission phtyed a \mri here, but it is not 
clear what tlieir mutual relations were. 

Hv LoNGKii PaAYi:i:.s, 
1. Thk SnoKTER Hymn to thi!: Aten. 

Tomb oC Apy. Both entmnce- walls (Plate xliii,). 
Tomb of Any. Left entrance-walL 

^ I. XXX vii. ; ti*aQslatiou ib., p. 50. 

' This probably was the reason for the otherwistj 
invariable addition of the geooad part. 


Tomb of Mahu. Four texts (Plates xvi., xxiii., xxix., 


Tomb of Tutu. Loft entrance-wall. 

Tomb of Mcryra. Rigfit inner ontrranee-wall (L, 

A collation of all the texts on Plates xxxii,, xxxiii*' 

Pt'evious copies or publicatiouB are : — 

Man. dii VuUe (VAtonou, I.» plate xxxviii. ; pp. 88-91 
(Apy) : plate xxviii.; p. 52 (Any): plates xlii., xlviii, ; 
pp. %, 07, 98» 102 (Mahu): plate liv. ; p. 112 (Tutu). 
Daressy, Jiccucil, XV. p. 43 (Any). Piehl, lnscri2)tionSt i. 
pis. cxcL, cxcii. (Apy). Lkpsius, I/., iii. iOiJb, (Tutu). 
Hay, MSS. 29314/fol. 36 (Meryra): 29,847, foL 15 
(Tutu). L*H6te, Papiers, xi. 27 (Meryra). 

*' An adoiution of f the living Hawk of the two horizons. 

who exults on the horizon 


nder his name of * The 

Light which is in the Sun-disc ' \ who give^ life for ever 

and over, by the Kinr/ who liccs in Truth, Lord of the 
Two Lands, Ncfer-khepent'ra^Ua'Cnra, the Son 0/ the 
SuHf who lives in Truth, Lord of Diadems, AkhenatcUt 
{jreal in hia d it ration, who fjives life for ever and ever,^ 

'*Thy rising is beautiful, *0 living Aten, Lord of 
Eternity!* Thou art radiant» fair and ^ strong:^ thy 
love is great and large: thy rays * strike (?) upon all 
mankind.^ '* Thy surface gleams, giving life to heai*ts/ 

' The text given in the collation is that on the left 
en trance -wall (Plate xxix.). For the others see Part L, 
pp. 50, 51. 

• I rely on my own copies entirely, except iu the fol- 
lowing cases:— (1) The text on the left entrance-wall of 
Apy (Apy a), very iiorcliable in the days of Bouriant, is 
DOW nearly invisible. (2) The text in the tomb of Any, 
also in ink, has detcriomted. and Bouriant *s copy some- 
times adds a sign or two to the top and bottom of the 
columns, (3) A great part of the text of Tutu is now- 
destroyed, and I use in these places the texts of Hay, 
Lepsius, and Bouriant, the last-named having preference. 

^ This sentence in italics has probably been added, in 
order to justify the use of the first person singular in the 
second part, or when the text was accompanied by a 
picture of the King at worship {Apy a, Tutu, Mahu 
a, b,d). To judge from the prayers, «n (** by *') only im- 
plies recital, hut zedef (**he saith *') implies or feigns 
composition. Apy a {Mon, du Cuitc d'Atonou, p. 90) may 
have used the latter form, but I cannot verify this, 

* Tutu roads, '' O divine and sovereign father, the Aten, 
whose life is ever fresh ! *' 

» Any and Meryra have, ** gleaming *' (or *' white *'). 

" Any and Meryra have, ** Shall ('/) make eyes for all 
that thou hast created." 

" Tutu has perhaps ** thy surface (lit. ** coloui* " ; spelt 
as in L, P., iii. 107a, coL 2) gleams (or •* is white ") with 

and thou fillest the Two Lands with thy love. ^O 
reverend god^^ who himself formed himself, who made 
every land, and created what is on it ; both mankind and 
all herds and tlocks, and the trees which grow on the 
ground. They live when ^ thou daw nest on fchem." Thou 
art mother and '" father ^" for " those whose eyes thou hast 
made. When thou dawnest they see by means of thee." 
*-Thy rays illumine the entire land. Every heart exults** 
at seeing thee (when) thou risest as their lord. 

*' (But when) thou sebtest on the western horizon of 
heaven, they lie down after the manner of those who 
die. Their heads are wrapped up, their nostrils are 
stopped ; until thou dawnest in the morning on the 
Eastern horizon of heaven. 

** (Then) their arms are (outstretched) in praise to thy 
hi. Thou givest life to hearts by thy beauty, and there 
is life. 

" (When) thou sendest thy rays every land is in 
festival;^* the singers, musicians, and criers (?) are 
joyful in the Court of the House of the Ben ben (and in) 
'* every temple in Akhetaten,"* that '^perfect place ^^ with 
which thou art well pleased, and in which food and fat 
things are offered, 

** Thy son is pure, doing what is well pleeising "^ to thee, 
living Aten,^" in his festal appearances.*' 

'• '* All that thou hast made leaps before thee ; thy 
revered son exults,'* his heart is in joy. ^^ living Aten, 
rejoicing in heaven every day ! *' 

^ Meryra has, ** O good ruler/* 

^ Tutu has, " when thy rays shine '* 

^" Tutu seems to omit ** father,** 

^' Meryra has, *' all that thou hast made. As for their 
t!yes, when thou dawnest they see by means of thee." 
The texts of Mahu break off here without regard to 
the sense. 

" Any has, ** when thy rays give light the entire land 
has joy, =ind every heart exults." {Ab neb has been 
omitted by me after rcshiU in the Plate). This seems an 
error. Tutu omits the whole passage. 

*^ Tutu adds, '*(thou) feedest and illuminest it." A 
bad reading. 

** Tutu has, " thy (?) temple,'' and Meryra, ** everj' shade 
of Ba on the horizon " (ale, perhaps for) '* in Akhetateu." 

'* Any and Meryra have *' every shrine." 

^* Tutu has **to the living Aten." 

'' I regard what follows (from arij-ek to mc^y-cf at 
least) as an interpolation in the original, owing to khaij- 
c/ being taken to refer to the dawning of Aten (hence 
Tutu's more graaimatical anj-ef), Khaif-ef would then 
belong to the original, though not occurring in Meryra, 
perhaps for lack of space. 

" Tutu has '' all that he has made leaps before him, 
Thy son exults." 

^'^ Tutu has '* The Aten is born iu heaven every day. ' 



*' He hath given birth to ^ his revered son Da-en-ra»* 
like unto him witliout ceasing,- The Son of the Sim» 
upholding his heauty, Nefer-kheperu-ra-Ua-en-ra [says] 
' I am thy son, serviceable to thee, upholding thy name. 
Thy might and power are firmly ' fixed ' in my heai't. 
Then art the living Aton, and eternifc}^ is thy portion. 
*Thou hast made the far-off heaven that thou mightest 
da^vn therein, that thou raightest see all that tliou hast 
made. Thou art alone,^ hut infinite vitalities are in thee 
to give them life, ^ It is a breath of life to (their) nostrils 
to see thy rays.^ 

*' * All flowers blow (?) ; that which grows on the soil (?) 
thrives at thy dawning; they drink draughts before thy 
face.*^ All cattle leap" upon their feet. The birds that 
were in the nest fly with joy ; their wings that were 
closed move quickly with praise to the living Aten, 
fl>ing(?) to do ■"» 

2. Penthu. North thickness (Plate iii.). • 
A previous copy is L*H6te, Papiers, iii, 294." 

,' Tutu has **his son who hath come forth from his 
body.** I consider that a second hymn in which the 
King speaks is here appended to the first. If the word 
•• says," supplied after the King's name, occurred in the 
original t^xt, it probably implied autliorsbip, as what 
follows Is largely derived from the Royal Hymn, 

- Meryra adds ** for ever/' and ends. Apy A ends 
with *' his beauty.*' 

^ Any has ** rooted.'* 

+ Word for word from the Royal Hymn, 

'^ Tutu has *' Bi*eath enters (their) nostrils when tbou 
givest thyself to them," 

^ The text of Any may well have continued above the 
figure of Any, but all is now completely effaced. 

* The text of Apy ends here, for lack of room 

« Cf. the Royal Hymn, '»The birds flutter in their 
nests; their wings are (outstretched) in praise to thy ka. 
The cattle are leaping on their feet.'* The space above 
the figure of Tutu admits of very few more signs, if any ; 
perhaps €n ka en. The text of Tutu in the last column 
of the plate should be emended (from Hay) as follows : — 

(K IB); 
(L 20). 

^'^^^ (1, 19); 


* From this the text has been restored in the Plate. 
Asterisks indicate a shght change in the hieroglyph, the 

true reading being obvious. In the first column T 

should be starred, as L'lldte reads H ^^^^ ■ The initial 

sign is probably ^, not (j. ,\ parallel text (bracketed 

here) occurs in the toujb of Huyu {III. ii.), Cf. also 
IL vii. for the opening phrases. 

** An adoration of Horakhti-Aten '^ [who gives life for 
I ever] and ever. Homage to thee» [dav^ning] in the sky 
i and shining early on the horizon of heaven, coming in 
peace, the Lord of Peace! The entire land assembles at 
thy rising ; [their] hands (are outstretched) in praise at 
thy dawning. They prostrate themselves on the ground 
when thou shinest on them. They about to the height 
I of heaven ; they receive joy and gladness ; [they] exult 
(when) they see Thy ^lajesty. Thou sendest thy rays 
on all men. They go forth when thou attainest heaven, 
when thou takest the goodly road. Tbou settest me 
eternally in a place of favour » in my [mansion] of bliss. 
My spirit goes forth to see thy rays, to feed on its offer- 
ings. I am called by my name, and one cometh at the 
summons. 1 enjoy the tbingi which are offered. I 
consume shens. and bat and peiien bread and fles beer, hot 
roast meat and cold water, wine and milk, that are 
offered in the sanctuary of the A ten in Akhetaten. 

** The royal scribe, the Intimate of the King, the Chief 
Servitor of Aten in the sanctuary of Aten in Akhetaten, 
the Chief Physician Penthu, maakhcru, says (this)," 

3. Penthu. Bouth thickness (Plate iv,). 
A previous copy is L'Hote, Papiers, iii, 293." 
•* An ascription of praise to ^' Horakhti-Aten who gives 
life for ever and ever, coming [each day eternally].'* 
Praise to thee, Ra. Lord of the horizon ! When thou 
traversest heaven al! mankind (depends?) on thee '* with- 
out ceasing in night as in daytime. Thou dawnest on 
the Eastern horizon and settest '^ on the Western horizon. 
Thou settest in life and gladness, every eye ""' rejoices ; 
(hot) they are in darkness after thou settest. When 
thou arrlvest from (?) the sky,^' eye sees not its fellow^ ; '' 

^^ I use this and ** Ra-Aten *' as abbreviations of the 
two forms of the names of Aten. 

*' The text of the Plate is restored from this. A 
duplicate text, badly preseiTed, exists in the tomb of 
Huya (111, xxxvii.),and from this the additions in square 
brackets are taken. A good copy of this text (with a 
few errors) will be found in il/on, du Culte tVAtonou, I., 
p. 00, ascribed to Tomb 21 of the 8outh group I 

*- Iluya has, *' Thy setting is beautiful," 

^' Huya has |i Vy <?) Kz^ Zl 

** i ^^ _^ ffom Huya, and L xli. Something 

seems to have been lost, and the latter text supports 
this view by giving '* all men welcome " 

'*^ Clearly in L'Hote and Huya. 

have expected •* in Duat,'* but mention of the Undei-world 
seems purposely avoided. 

Reading 1 1 


So Huva, 



all manner of reptiles are on the face of the earth. 
(Men) lie down * and are hlind (?) until thou shinest.' 
They awake to see thy beauties. (When thou risest?) 
they see and discern by means of them (?). ^ Thou 
sendest thy rays upon them.* 

*' Thou causest me to rest in my eternal seat. I reach 
the eternal pit.* I leave and enter my mansion. My 
soul is not shut off from that which it desires ; I walk as 
I will in the grove that I have made on earth. I 
drink water at the edge of my tank every day, without 
ceasing." '*' 

4. Rames. Right thickness (Plate xxxv.).' 
"Thou comest who livest in Truth, Lord of the Two 
Lands, Nefer-kheperu-ra, the living Sun for all mankind, 
by whose beauty there is health. The sight of thee 

There is no poverty for him who hath set 

thee in his heart.® He hath not said, * Oh ! that I had I * 
He continues on the blessed road until he reaches the 
guerdon of the loyal. I give praises to thee, millions of 

times I am a prince, of those whom 

the Ruler has made. He gives to me fair burial and 
interment in the necropolis of the favoured, with daily 
rations as one whom Ua-en-ra, Light of every man, 
has made. O living Aten, grant to him hundreds 

of thousands of serf-festivals daily upon 

earth (?), beauteous in possession of eternity, as is thy 

nature his fear (?) is in their hearts, as 

the dutiful son of him that bare him (?) 

according to thy command of that which 

thy ha (?) gives. Thou givest (?) to the poor 

to me interment ; he gives (?) to me within 

Akhetaten (?). 

** For the ha of the royal Scribe, Superintendent of the 
soldiery of the Lord of the Two Lands, Steward of the 
house of Neb-maat-ra (Amenhetep III.), Rames." '•* 

> Reading ^ ^ ""^ H ^ J^ ^^^ (Huya). 

' A passage borrowed from recollections of the Royal 
Hymn, "Men lie down in their chambers (shesepii) 

.... eye beholds not its fellow the reptiles 

bite." The expression, " They are blind " (sJiesej)) is, 
perhaps, due to a misunderstanding of that line. 


I I I 

appears to be the reading. 

^ -.^ I I I 1^ Huya. 

•' i.e. the burial shaft. 

« Iluya adds another sentence, in which " seeing thy 
rays " occurs. The titles of Penthu which follow repeat 
those given above, with the addition of Ami klicnt, 
"Privy Councilloi." They are recorded by Lrprius, 
/;., iii. 01 </, and 7>. Text, ii., p. 132. 

7 Mon. (ht Citltc (VAtonoHf pi. xxxvii. 

** Cf. L XXXV. 

y houriant reads ] which is probable. The 

n il n I ^ 

wall has probably deteriorated since his day. 

C. Shorter Praykrs. 

1. Penthu. Lintel : Left End (Plate ii.) '° 

** An ascription of praise to the living Aten, and an 
act of homage to the good god by the Royal Chancellor, 
*the Sole Companion, the follower of the feet of the Lord 
of the Two Lands, the favourite of the good god, whom 
his lord loves every day,* the Royal Scribe, the Intimate 
of the King, Chief Servitor of the Aten in the sanctuary 
of the Aten in Akhetaten, the Chief Physician and Privy 
Councillor, Penthu, vmakheni.** 

2. Penthu. Lintel. Right End (Plate ii.). 

The same, replacing the starred passage by, "he who 
has approach to the person of the god, the Chief of 

Chiefs, knowing of the Two Lands, First of 

the Companions." 

D. Burial Petitions. 

1. Penthu. Jambs (Plate ii.). 

"A dy lietep set^n of Horakhti-Aten. May he give 

(a) (Right jamb) " j;5r/-A;/i^n/ offerings and libations of 
wine and milk. 

(b) '' pert-kheru . . . . 

(c) " . . . . my .... in the necropolis . . . ." 
{d) Lost. 

(e) (Left Jamb). ** [A reception] of loaves . . . ." 

(f, g) Lost. 

{h) " . . . . without ceasing. My name abides on 

" For the ha of the Royal Scribe (or ' Intimate of the 
King/ or * Chief Physician '), Penthu, viaahheru.** 

2. Mahu. Outer jambs (Plate xxviii.)." 

The first columns (a, d) salute Ra-Aten, the King, and 
the Queen. 

" [A salutation of] the living Aten 

(b) "and an obeisance to Ua-en-ra, the god who 
establishes men, and gives life to the Two Lands. Do 
thou give me fair burial after old age." 

(c) "Lord of Eternity. May he give (sic). Thou 
gleamest and art brilliant, potent in love and great." 

" [Praise to thee] O living Aten ! 

(e) " Thou risest to give life to that which thou hast 
created : they live at the sight of thy rays. Thou givest 
thy duration in years to the King of South and North, 
who lives in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, Nefer- 
kheperu-ra, who gives life for ever. 

(/) " a god noble and beloved,^- who created and bare 
himself. [Thou] hast given South and North to thy 
Son, who went forth from thy body ; the Son of the Sun 

"' For this and the following prayer cf. Ill xxvii. 
" Moil, du Culte dWtonou, I., pp. 94. 95. 
'■- See No. 7 (Plate xxxii.). 



who lives on Truth, Lord of Diadems, Aklienaten, great 
in his duration. For the ka of the Cotnmfinclant of the* 
police of Akhetaten, ^lahu/' ' 

3. Mahiu Inner Jaoihs (Plate xxvii.).* 

The first columns {a, t*) contaia saint at ions of Ru- 
Aten ('* Long life to the divine and sovereign Father *')^ 
the King, and the Queen* 

*' Praise to thy ka!'' 

(b) (Right side). ** Thy rising is beautiful, O living 
Aten, Lord of Eternity. Do thou give to me fair burial 
after old age/' 

{c) Repeats 2 c, 

(d) '* O [Ua-en-ra, the King (?)] who lives on Truth, 
Lord of the Two Lands, Nefer-kheperu-ra, who gives 
life. !May he give favours [every] day {?). 

(/) ** O living Aten, Lord of Rays, thou whoillumineat 
the Two Lands with thy rays, for all the land (sic). 
When thou settest on theWesteni hori^con, they He down. 

(§f) *'..,.... , Nofer-kheperu-ra, the god who hears 

the of the King. He does what is well- 

pleasing to his father, the Aten. 

(h) *' Lord of Rays 1 (?) When thou risest on the Eastern 
horizon of heaven their hands are (outstretched) in praise 
to thy ka. Hearts live at (sic).^ 

** For the ka of the Commandant of the police of 
Akhetaten, Mahu, vutakh^ru/' 

4. Apy. Right Jamb {PI. xxxix).* 

(a) Salutation of the three Powers (the Aten, the 
King» and the Queen). 

(b) ** Bestow (thy) duration as Aten in 

heaven on the King of South and North (etc). May he 
gi'ant a good name in Akhetaten/* 

(e) ** They (thy rays ?) embrace thy ^on, the Son of the 
Sua (etc.). May he grant a reception of loiives in the 
temple of Aten/* 

(d) " . . . . Grant to her eternity as her life, to the 
great wife of t!ie King (etc.). May [she] grant a sight 
of Aten in the necropolis (?) of Akhetaten/' 

** For the ka (of) the Steward Apy/' 

5. Nefer • kbeperu - her - sekheper. Left jamb (PI 

^ The sign of the deceased man is followed by the 
papyms-flower and buds, which at a later period was in 
frequent use after names of deceased women in place 
of ''nuiatkheru/' It rarely occurs after men's names. 
Its use here is probably one more solecism of this 
ignorant scribe. 

- Mojt. du Cuite tVAtonoH, L, li. 

^ All these petitions of Muhu consist of snatches, 
often incoojplete and bungled, from the byum which 
already occurs four times in the tomb. The hieroglyphs, 
strictly follow ed, would often make nonsense. 

^ Moii, du Ctilfe d'Aioiiou, pi xxxviii. 

- Ib„ p, 79. 

(a) Salutation of the three Powers. 

{b) " . . . . beloved of the Lord of the Two Lauds for 
his talent, possessor of favour before the Lord of the 
Two Lands, the Governor of Akhutaten, N., maakhem,'* 

(c) ** . . . . Akbenaten, groitt in his duration. May he 
grant . . . the way of Truth for him. He was called 
at the head of the notaijles, Governor of Akhetaten, N,, 

(d) *•.... the great wife of the King, beloved of him» 
Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti, living for ever and 
ever. May [she] give (?)..,. entering the Presence 
in the reserved part of the Palace, the Governor of 
Akhetaten, N., niaakbcrn.'* 

C. Suti. Jambs (PI. xxxix.).'^ 

The first columns (a, e) contain salutations of the 
three Powers. 

'* A dy ketep seten of the living Aten,*" 

(h) (RIghtr jamb) **.... May he grant .... that 
which is otTered in the Presence/* 

(e) ♦',... [like?] the Light, lord of food, gi'eat in 
Niles, by food of whose giving the land liveth. May he 
send the pleasant breezes of the north wind.'* 

(d) ** . . . . of lofty plumes, gleaming with the 
diadem (?), beloved (?) of the Lord of the Two Lands. 
Mayest thou (fern. ?) grant a sight of Aien , . , . 
May he grant . . . /' 

(/) '^ . . . who illumines all the land by his ka. 
May ho give a fair burial after .... old age, and my 
rest in the necropolis (?) of Akhetaten (?), a fitting ^eat.*' 

{ij) •* who illumines (?) all the land by bis rising. May 
he gi^ant the bounty of the good god, the daily offering in 

the Presence, that which is set out on the 

a reception of that which he giveth and hts food (?)," 

(A) »*,... Do thou grant departure in the morning 
from the Underworld to see Aten as he rises daily without 

** For the ka of the standard-bearer of the guild of 
Nefer-kheperu-ra, Suti, maakherUt possessor of the ^ood 

7. Apy* Ceiling (PI. xxxii.)." 

** A dy fwtep seU'tL of the living Hawk of the two 
horizons (Horakhti),* a god noble and beloved, living in 
Truth every day. May he grant the smell of incense, the 
reception of ointment, a draught of water at the swirl 
of the stream,^ and that my soul be not debarred from 
that which it desires." 

« Ik, p. 68. 7 j^.^ p. 92. 

^ This occurrence, without qualification, of the name 
of the ancient deity whom Akbenaten grailually trans- 
formed into the Aten is unparalleled, but not surprising. 
It was this tendency to revert to old ideas that caused 
the King about this time to abandon the use of the name 

^ ** Banks of the pool,'* in the parallel passage, Plat^ iv. 




The first process after the rock-walls of tbf* chamher had 
been dresjied with the chisel as smoothly as the nature 
of the atone allowed* was to cover the w4iole \Yith a 
coating of hard plaster, This was done in order that 
by fillincr up the holes and fissures with which the local 
rock abounds, a perfectly plane surface rai^ht be secured, 
rather than with the idea of being able to work in a 
softer medium ; for where the wall was already plane 
the plaster becomes a mere ^mear, little thicker than 

On this dry plaster the design was sketched out in ink 
\u all detail, often in greater detail than was likely to he 
reproduced by the chisel. The ink might be yellow, red, 
or black ; if the design needed corrections thej' were made 
in red or in black. This picture was generally in some- 
what thick outhne (Plates xvii., xviii,, xix. ; III. xxx,, 
xxxii.), hut occasionally in solid colour (PI. x.)» 

The pictures ware always executed In sunk relief for 
the sake of the protection afforded to the figure^i by the 
surrounding surface. The depth to which they were cut 
varied greatly, large figures being cut very deep, while 
small work w^as sometimes only faintly impressed on the 
plaster (I. xi., xii* ; III. x., xi., xiv.}.'^ The sculptor, 
working on the ink outlines, sank them to the required 
extent, leaving the figures in rounded relief within* If 
the plaster happened to be thick, the smaller work might 
be entirely within it; but if it were a mere wash, even 
the small inscriptions would be cut into the stotie below. 
The larger figures, owing to their deep cutting, were 
always mainly formed in stone. Generally speakiug, 
even where all the piaster has fallen aw^ay; the main 
outhnes of the picture and much of the detail can still 
be recovered from the stone alone. 

At this stage the small work had reproduced the ink- 
design in all or most of its detail, and was complete, 
except for a lack of finish and precision of line. It 
needed no more than a wash of fine plaster to make the 

» See also Part L, p. IB. 

a In these cases the work gives the impression of 
having been done with a bluut modelling tool while the 
plaster was soft, as it is so slightly depressed that it 
scarcely has a definite outline, and often fades into the 
general surface. Possibly, however, the final coating or 
wash has given it this smooth appearance, and nearly 
blotted out the indistinct outline. 

surface smooth, and to enable the fine detail to be 
elaborated.^ But in large work, where the stone had 
been deeply cut into, and the relief stood out lx)ldly, the 
figures were often rough, and the greater part of the 
detail had been lost with the surface ; so that it was 
necessary to build them up more or less afresh w*ith new 
plaster of a fine quality. No doubt at this stage the 
fresh plaster might be modelled while still soft. Whether 
the sculptor used memory and judgment in adding the 
outlines which the chisel bad removed, or had a copy of 
the design for reference, is not determinable ; hut the 
latter is not probable. 

The procedure in the tombs of Penthu and Ahnies was 
somewhat different, owing to the soft and crumbling 
nature of the stone. There the sculptor set to work on 
his figures either by cutting the wall-surface within the 
outlines down to the same depth all over, as if for inlay, 
or gave them only the roughest hlocking-out in relief within 
the mould so formed. By so doing he loft nearly al! the 
work to be done afresh ; for lie bad already removed 
even the outline of his figures. Nothing of the original 
design was preserved except a depression roughly 
corresponding to the original outline, and sometimes 
rough work in relief within it indicating inner detail 
(see PI. xi.). 

The result was that the modeller was provided only 
with a rough mould to guide him and had to build up the 
required figure within this in fresh plaster. The medium, 
in short, is largely or entirely plaster inlaid in stone, and 
the results, if con^espondingly delicate, w^ero also corres- 
pondingly frail. The new plaster made a poor join with 
the old (see the helmets of Uie King and Queen in PL xi,) ; 
the monld was cut out so roughly that its w^alls were more 
plaster than stone; the inserted figure proved a dead 
weight of plaster, without the grip upon the wall which 
it had when it was a thin overlay on a stone matrix. In 
addition, the stone itself was f liable. It is no wonder then 
that practically the whole of the decoration in the tomb 
of Penthu has fallen away, and that the inscriptions 

^ Cf. Plate xlii.p where the head of Mahu is finely 
chiselled in plast r. Imt without smoothness. Also 
PI. xli., where only the head of the vizier is perfectly 
tinished off. Those of the elders there need further 
working up, and the faces and figm-es of the pnsoners 
are very ronghly cut. 


which were cut in inlaid tablets of plaster have been lost. 
In the entrance the rock was of better quality, and the 
figures and texts on both sides, being cut in stone in the 
old way, were fairly well preserved till recent years. 

This method of inlay was partially adopted also in the 
tomb of Ahmes ; probably in imitation, for the stone here 
aippears to be good. Some of the figures (altars, slaugh- 
tered oxen, etc.) have been cut out bodily in the plaster 
and merely form moulds to be filled in afterwards 
(III. XXX.). In general, however, the work was on the 
old lines, and, thanks to this, the representation of the 
soldiery there has not only withstood the lapse of time, 
but even the process of casting. 

The general technique of the later tombs of Meryra II. 
and Huya is poorer, the figures in the smaller work being 
often but slightly sunk and without distinctness of 

The final process was that of painting, which was for 

the most part in flat primary colours. In the Southern 
tombs this stage has rarely advanced far. Alike the 
sculptures and the architecture remain in general a pure 
white. The painted ceiling of Ay, the coloured inscriptions 
on the beams and columns, the bright cornice of Any, 
and the fully-coloured scene in tomb 7,* show that this 
was not deliberate, but that with greater leisure a full 
scheme of colour would have been carried out. The wall- 
surfaces of the entrance passages, which were the first 
parts to be completed, are generally coloured.^ A great 
deal of fine detail was added or restored in the process of 
painting, and sometimes the smaller work was re-outlined 
in red (especially on the North Wall of the tomb of 

* See Frontispiece, Part V. 

^ This is applicable also to the tombs of Ahmes and 
Penthu, which are so closely allied to the S. group. 



Ahmes, tomb of .1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 

Akhenaten depicted 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 

policy of 

prayers to 

„ ruins of 

Amenhetep III 
Ami khent 
Anatomy . 
Any, tomb of .... 13, 
Apy, tomb of . . 13, 19, 20, 22, 
Architecture, tomb- 1, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 

,, „ styles compared 
Armoury . 

Art, quality of . 


„ methods of 


Aten, names of 
„ temple of 
„ hymns to 

Authorship of hymns 

Ay, tomb of 

Barsanti, M. 

Benben, House of the 

Bouriant, M. 


Buildings depicted 


Burial -chamber 





" Chancellor," . 

Chariots . 

" Chief of Chiefs " 

** Chief of Companions ' 

** Chief Physician " . 


3, 5, 10, 


8, 9, 14, 

2, 3, 8, 


16, 20, 26, 32, 33 
14. 16, 19, 22, 28 
. 9, 26, 31 
30, 31 
4, 7, 8, 16 
11, 13, 18, 21 
22, 30 
3, 5, 13, 19 

14, 27, 28, 29, 33 
26, 27, 28, 29, 31 
16, 19, 21, 23, 33 

. 8 
. 17 

15, 19, 23, 31, 33 

. 3, 4, 15 

10, 14, 16, 32, 33 

. 17 

19, 22, 29, 30, 31 

14, 15, 17, 28, 29 

14, 19, 20, 26-31 


. 7,20,33 

7, 21 

. 28 
7, 12, 23, 28, 30 

. 17 
4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 17 

9, 10 
. 1, 9, 12, 22, 24 
. 1, 9, 21, 25, 30 

1, 4, 14, 19, 21, 22, 24 


2, 10, 20, 31, 33 

. 3,6,30 

2, 4, 5, 15, 16, 17, 18 



. 3, 4, 6, 29, 30 

" Chief Servitor of Aten " 
Chronology, data for 
Clothing . 

Collars, golden 
Columns . 

** Commandant of Police " 
'* Commandant of Soldiery 
" Companion " . 
Conventions, artistic 
Cornices . . . . 
Corridor, cross- 
„ direct 

. 3, 4, 6, 29, 30 

3, 8, 9, 14, 22. 31 

1, 14, 15, 17. 19 

10, 24 

. 4, 5, 14, 15 

1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 13, 19, 20, 23, 32, 33 

4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 19, 23, 24, 25, 33 


17, 21, 30 


. 4,5,16 

1, 7, 8, 10, 13, 23, 33 

2, 9, 12, 19, 21, 23, 25 


Cow-keeper 5 

Creation, hymns of 27, 28, 29 

Cup 5, 6 

Daressy, M 8, 23 

Decoration of tombs 2, 8, 10, 13, 15, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33 

Defences of city 14, 16 

Deputy-mayor 16 

Deterioration of records . . .8, 20, 22, 28, 30, 32 
Door-framings inscribed . . 1, 12, 19, 21, 24, 25 

Door with lattice 8 

„ plank- 20 

„ double 8, 23, 25 

Dog 17 

Dy Jietep seten prayers . 1, 21, 30, 31 

Editor, assistance by 17, 26 

Egypt, ancient and modem 18 

Enamel 14 

Entanglements, military 16 

False-doors 9, 13 

Fashions, changes in ... 8, 13, 16, 22, 31 
** Favourite of the good God " . 6, 30 

Feathers as head-dress 19 

Figures of deceased . 1, 8, 13, 20, 21 

Fish ... 17 



Flowers 17 

" Follower of the feet of the King " . 6, 30 

Food 3, 4, 6, 17, 28, 29, 30, 31 

Foreigners 17 

Forts 14, 16, 17 

Furniture 2, 3 

Galleries for burial 24, 25 

Gardens depicted 4 

" Governor of Akhetaten "... 14, 24, 31 

Graffiti 1 

Granary 4 

Guilds 25 i Mutilation of tombs . 

Maat 19 

Mabhou 12 

Mahu 9, 10, 12-18, 20, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32 

Mannerisms in art 3, 5, 8, 13, 14 

Masts 16 

May 4,10 

Meketatbn 2, 3, 14 

Mebyba, tomb of . . 3, 4, 9, 13, 27, 28, 29, 33 

Mebytatbn 2, 9, 14, 16, 22 

Methods of craftsmen . . . . 10, 15, 24 
Motives estimated . 2, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16 

Mazau. See also ** Police ") . . 14, 16 

1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 19, 28 

Hagg Qandil, village of 7, 8 i Neb-maat-ba . 

Handcuffs 17 j Nebt-ant .... 

Haste apparent in work . . 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 24, 25 ' Necropolis, Northern 

Hay, Robert 7, 8, 23, 28, 29 „ Southern 

Head-dress 14, 15, 19 >f change of 

Historical veracity of scenes 4 i Nefeb-khepebu-hbb-sekhbpbb 

Horakhti 31 I Nefebtiti (see ** Queen "). 

. 22,30 
. 21 
3, 7, 9, 11 
3, 5, 7-11, 12, 13, 29, 33 
. 3,7,8 
. 23, 31 

Horemheb 8 

Horses (see also ** Chariots ") . ..... 16 

Human touches in scenes 16,17 

HuY . . . 21 

HuYA, tomb of . . . . 1, 6, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33 

Nurses 4 

Octroi 16 

Offerings 2, 13, 14, 19, 22 

Ointment 22, 31 

Hymn to Aten 14, 26, 27, 29, 30 Originality 

,, Shorter 

13, 19, 20, 26-29, 31 i Ornaments, personal 

4, 26 
4, 6, 14, 15, 19 

imteracy 12, 13, 15, 16, 26, 31 j Palace 5, 8, 10, 14 

Incense 13, 22 Panehbsy, tomb of 3, 4, 9 

Ink, records in . . 8, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 24, 32 • Papyrus-flower sign 31 

Inlay, plaster 2, 32, 33 ' Patching-stones 5, 7 

Inspection of stores 17 

Interpolated texts 26, 27, 28 

'* Intimate of the King" 3, 29, 30 

Jars 5, 17, 18 

Jecquier, M 8 

Jones, Mr. Harold 22 

King (see ** Koyal," '* Akhenaten," ** Amenhetep "). 
,, smiting enemy 14 

leaver, C 7^ 23 

Lamp •••...... 14 

Legrain, M. ....... 3 

Lepsius, Eichard 1, 2, 7, 11, 28 

L*H6te, Nestor 1 4 7 29 

Lintel, scenes on 1, 13, 19, 21 

Literary quality of hymns . . 26, 31 
Loggia of palace 5^ 14 

Penthu . 
„ titles of 
,, tomb of 

Petrie, Professor 

Pharaoh . 

2-6, 29, 30 

. 3, 4, 5, 29, 30 

1-6, 9, 26, 32, 33 

11, 13, 21 

. . 4, 17 

Pilasters 8, 16, 19, 23 

Plagiarism 3, 4, 14, 26 

Plaster, use of . . 2, 3, 5, 10, 21, 22, 24, 32, 33 
Portals 8, 23, 25 

Portraiture .... 


Princesses (see " Koyal Family "). 




" Privy Councillor " . 

3, 5, 13, 19, 22, 32 
1, 3, 4, 27 

. 17 

14, 15, 16, 17, 18 

17, 18, 32 

3, 30 

Quality of art . . . 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 19, 23, 32, 33 
Quay shown 4 



Queen depioted . . . 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 19, 22 

,, laudation of 20, 31 

,, prayers to 30, 31 

„ sister of 8 

Rames 14, 20, 21, 22, 30 

„ of Abd-el-Qumeh 22 

Records of tombs, previous 7, 8, 11, 23, 28 

Rewards of officials . 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14 

Roads to tombs 11 

Rock, nature of . . 1, 2, 7, 10, 19, 21, 32, 33 

Rossetti 3 

** Royal Chancellor " 6, 30 

'* Royal Scribe " .... 6, 20, 21, 29, 30 
Royal family . . 2, 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 16, 19, 22 

„ hymn 14, 26, 27, 29, 30 

„ tomb 2, 3 

Sanctuary, Smaller 2, 3 

Sceptre 14 

Schaefer, Dr 2 

Screens . . 3 

Scribes . . 4, 6, 17, 20, 21, 26, 29, 30, 31 

Sentries . . . . . 16, 17 

Sentry-houses 17 

Shipping 4 

Shrines 2, 9, 12, 21, 23, 25 

" Sister " as wife 21,22 

Sistra 20 

" Sole Companion " 6, 30 

Soldiery 5, 14, 33 ! 

** Standard-bearer " 25 i Weapons 



" Steward of the honse of Nebmaatra " 
Stores, Government .... 

9, 12, 13, 24 

. 20 

22, 30 


25, 31 

Technique 2, 10, 13, 15, 32, 33 

Temple represented 2, 3, 8, 14, 15 

Terrace, raised 15,16 

Texts, corruption of 26 

Textual criticism 26, 27 

Theban fashions 8, 26 

Titles ... 6, 17, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 30, 31 

Tombs, late occupation of . . 1, 2, 10 

„ uninscribed .... 7, 9, 10, 11, 29 

Trench in floor 2 

Tutu, tomb of . . . 13, 14, 20, 27, 28, 29 
Tyi 6,25 

Ua-en-ra 15, 16, 29, 30, 31 

Underworld 29, 31 

Unfinished designs 2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 

24, 32, 33 
tombs . . 2, 9, 10, 12, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25 

Variants in hymns 26, 27 

Vessels 5, 6, 13, 17, 22 

Victualling guard-houses 17 

Vizier 14, 16, 17, 32 

Standards, military 14, 15 

Whitewashed tombs 

Statues 1, 21, 25 Wigs 

. 17 

10, 12, 23, 33 

. 21 

Stela in tomb . 
,, boundary 

8, 13, 14 

Women 15, 17, 21, 31 

Worship, scenes of . . . . 1, 2, 13, 15, 19, 22 




An index to the passages in the text which are explanatory of the several plates 

will be found on pages vii., viii. 

El Amarna IV. 


Plate I. 

Burial Vault 




immum ^ T 



imi I I I I I I 1 rn I I I I I iPttT 








^w*"Tt / \ vm 

! c . 59 ft i3m|> 


Scale I 

El Amarna IV. 

Stale \ 


{Now in BaHin..} 





El Amarna IV. 


Plate III. 


El Amarna )V. 



Plate IV. 

El Amarna IV. 





Plate V. 

s Jyk ^ 

... ...,.JiJ 


El Amarna IV. 




Scale \ 


Plate VI. 


El Amaana IV. 






Plate VII. 

! Hi li ! i| il i! 

'■','■ \\ 'I I ' !' '• ! 

j IN Hi H M' i! 


El Amarna IV. 


Plate IX. 





B (5ee Plat* VIII) 



A (See Plate VIII) 

Ll AmaHN^ W 




V ' 

III >': 

In ^ 


^ /■' 

El Amarna IV. 


Plate XIV. 



p;f \\ 

El Amarn*- W. 


Plate XV. 

Scale ^ 


El AmaRna IV. 


Seals I 

El AmarnA \V. 


Plate XVII. 


















Eu Amarn^ (V* 

El Amarna IV. 





Plate XX. 




El AmaRna IV. 


Plate XXI. 

£L.ajLJi nnnn^fi n nnnnnn 








(Completion of Scenes on Pis. XX, XXII). 

El Amarna IV. 





Plate XXI 

1 n 











F^^ nj 



^ 1 



El AM^R^»^ 'V- 


Plate XXIII. 









n 1 

Settle ^ 


El Amarna IV. 




Plate XXIV. 

..„ "^ 


- J. _- ' ■ -"^^ - ' 




Plate XXV. 


{Completion of scenes on Plates XXIV, XXVI.) 

El. Amarna IV. 



Scale i 


Plate XXVI. 



SeaU I 

I Settle I 

El Amarna IV. 


Plate XXXV. 



i£iviffl^^i^^jr!:iij#r'»:j^R-]^iia^,^i{° -^ v^ mmim 



. ?D?i;j(«c 




-11- ) 11^^ 

D."? -v^ I 














El Amarna IV. 

TOMB 13. 

Plate XXXVI. 

El Amarna IV. 


Plate XXXVII. 

(looking East), 








¥ A 





I I I U 












"■ J. - L l 



Scale i. 





El Amarna IV. 





Scale ^ 

El Amarna IV 

Seah i 







(415) 723-1493 

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XXIL— ADYDOS. Pan L Memoir for 1901-2. By W. M. 
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XXIV,^ABYD08. Part IL Memoir for 1903^3. By 
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CoRRELLY, B. R. Ayrton, aud A. E. P. Wriqall, <I:c. 
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XXVL^KHNASYi, Memoir for 1903-4. By W. M. 
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1904-5. By Edouard Naville. Platea GXIX.— CL., 
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